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Full text of "The English works of George Herbert"

THE ENGLISH WORKS OF 
GEORGE HERBERT 

IN SIX VOLUMES 

VI 



Exterior of Bemerton Church, with road running between it and 
the Rectory. See Vol. I, p. 4^. 



THE ENGLISH WOEKS OF 

EDITED BY GEORGE HERBERT PALMER 



VOLUME SIX 
BEMERTON POEMS 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

MDCCCCV 



COPYRIGHT 1905 BY GEORGE HERBERT PALMER 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

THIS LARGE-PAPER EDITION IN SIX VOLUMES 

IS LIMITED TO 150 COPIES 

PRINTED FROM TYPE AT THE RIVERSIDE PRESS 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U.S.A. 

NO. /^<? 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
VOLUME VI 

GROUP PAGE 

X. SUFFERING 1 

XI. DEATH 69 
Xn. ADDITIONAL AND DOUBTFUL POEMS 105 

VARIATIONS OF THE MANUSCRIPTS 193 

INDEX TO POEMS 199 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
VOLUME VI 

Exterior op Bemerton Church frontispiece 

Interior of Bemerton Church page 68 

PUGGLESTON ChURCH 104 

Salisbury Cathedral 192 



X 

SUFFERING 



PREFACE 

IN one of the closing poems of the preceding 
Group, The Crosse, Herbert complains that 
ill health is crippling his powers and rendering 
him unfit for work. Undoubtedly illness had much 
to do with the restlessness and despondency which 
the poems of Group IX describe. The fear of it 
had long been in his mind, and was expressed as 
early as 1622 in that letter to his mother from 
which I have already quoted. During the Crisis 
period it comes out in The Priesthood as an- 
other reason for hesitation when he is just coming 
to a decision. 

Should I presume 
To wear thy habity the severe attire 

My slender compositions might consume. 
I am both foul and brittle. 

• Herbert's constitution was naturally frail. Speak- 
ing of his sicknesses in Easter Wings he says, My 
tender age in sorrow did beginne. In the letter of 1 6 1 
to his mother he mentions my late ague. In 1617 he 
writes his stepfather: You know I was sick last 
vacation, neither am I yet recovered, so that I am 
fain ever and anon to buy somewhat tending towards 
my health. Walton says that "He had often de- 



4 PREFACE TO 

sign'd to leave the University and decKne all Study, 
which he thought did impair his health, for he had 
a body apt to a Consumption and to Fevers and 
other infirmities." Later, Walton writes : "About 
the year 1629 Mr. Herbert was seiz'd with a sharp 
Quotidian Ague. He became his own Physitian 
and cur'd himself of his Ague by forbearing Drink, 
and not eating any Meat, no not Mutton nor a 
Hen or Pidgeon, unless they were salted. And by 
such a constant Dyet he remov'd his Ague, but 
with inconveniencies that were worse; for he 
brought upon himself a disposition to Rheumes 
and other weaknesses and a supposed Consump- 
tion." 

Probably this severe illness occurred somewhat 
earlier in the Crisis period than Walton here states; 
for Herbert married in March, 1629, and Walton 
in another passage says that before "he declared 
his resolution both to marry and to enter into the 
Sacred Orders of Priesthood ... his health was 
apparently improved to a good degree of strength 
and chearfulness." In any case, it was but a few 
years later that he undertook his work at Bemerton 
with consumption well under way. The seeds of 
it were provided by his natural constitution; its 
development was advanced by the physical and 
mental experiences of the Crisis ; and its end was 
assured by his taking up a new and anxious form of 
Hfe under circumstances where introspection and 
depression were inevitable. 



SUFFERING 5 

There is no sharp dividing Hne parting this 
Group of poems from the preceding. They are 
separated rather by the varying degrees of empha- 
sis laid on motives common to the two. Through- 
out them both ring notes of disappointment over 
the priesthood, despondency, rebeUion, dulness, 
self-reproach, penitence, mental perplexity, bodily 
pain, fear of God's alienation, and the bitterness of 
Ufelong purposes coming to an end. This sad ma- 
terial I have tried to set in order. The poems which 
are chiefly dominated by the earKer emotions 
mentioned, I place in Group IX; those ruled by 
the later, in Group X. In the former, the mental 
side of his distress is uppermost, — his intellectual 
discontent. In the second, physical suffering 
declares itself, which still, after the manner of 
the love-poets, he attributes to some possible fault 
in himself and negligence on the part of the great 
Friend. 

It is noticeable how comparatively slight a place 
in these laments Herbert gives to regrets for the 
broken priesthood. While it seems certain that two 
clear purposes ran together throughout Herbert's 
Ufe, the purpose to be a priest and that to be a poet, 
the former remained only a purpose until twelve 
thirteenths of his short life were gone. The latter 
passed out of the stage of resolution and became a 
diligently prosecuted reality as early as 1610. That 
his poetic work is to end he mourns in Grief, 
DuLNESSE, and The Forerunners, and to it he 



6 PREFACE TO 

alludes at the close of The Flower. But there is 
little direct mention of the cessation of his priestly- 
work. I think this must be explained by the highly 
individualistic conception of religion which he held. 
Repeatedly I have pointed out how his holy aspira- 
tions confine themselves to drawing close the ties 
between God and his own soul. Possibly he may 
have regarded these essentially personal relations 
as those best fitted for expression in poetry. At any 
rate, it is of his own salvation that he regularly 
speaks. He will be God's child; will love Him and 
be loved. The desire to sanctify himself for the 
sake of others rarely appears. We cannot compre- 
hend a great nature unless we are willing to ob- 
serve its limitations. Herbert shared those of his 
age. Its noblest work was to take the single soul 
and set it before God. Piety as personal allegiance 
was its special Gospel, a partial Gospel no doubt, 
as are the thoughts about rehgion of each succeed- 
ing age. But partial as it was, it was a real and 
weighty part, and it made a permanent contribu- 
tion to the spiritual resources of our race. His 
priesthood Herbert accordingly thoyght of as pri- 
marily the dedication of himself to God. When it 
appeared that God wanted him not here, but above, 
he experienced few regrets over priestly work left 
undone. Regrets he has. Sighs and groans abound. 
But they are those of the lover conscious of his 
own lack of desert, and uncertain whether at last 
he may find favor in the loved one's sight. 



SUFFERING 7 

On the other hand, Herbert has for more than 
twenty years been studious of poetry. In it he has 
been conscious of something more Hke pubHc ser- 
vice than even the priesthood yielded. The latter 
has been principally a means of effecting his own 
salvation; the former, of obeying the laws of 
beauty, and counteracting certain evil tendencies 
of his time. To its delicate demands he still steadily 
holds himself. These closing cries of pain are 
guarded, and given as beautiful a form as ever 
The Elixer or Mortification had in the proud 
Cambridge days. I find no falling off, no slov- 
enliness, in all this preoccupied period. The 
Flower is one of his most subtly beautiful pieces, 
though declaring itself to be very late. And The 
Forerunners, Vertue, Life, and The Glance, 
which I believe must stand in the Death Group, 
stand also in the very front rank of Herbert's 
performance. 

I have already indicated the scheme of my 
arrangement. It follows the gradually increasing 
prominence of the consciousness of bodily ill. 
There runs through the early poems of the Group 
— Grieve Not, Confession, The Storm, Com- 
plaining — a fear that God has withdrawn Him- 
self. This changes in the Afflictions, Sighs and 
Grones, and Longing, to a sense of physical pain, 
a pain which he believes, though sent by God, is 
sent in love. In The Glimpse, A Parodie, Jo- 
seph's Coat, and Jesu, there springs up a kind of 



8 PREFACE 

tender playfulness between him, the sufferer, and 
the Friend who briAgs the bitter gift. And in one 
of the sweet intervals of suffering, reported in 
The Flower, full joy and peace are felt in the 
presence of the loved one. 



SUFFERING 



10 BITTER-SWEET 



Introductory: 

In contrast with Revelation x, 9, God's dealings 
with us, if bitter at first, are sweet afterwards. A 
poem similarly paradoxical is Clasping of Hands, 
V, 37. 

Date: 

Not found in W. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

Contradictions involved in the life of love. 2 Corin- 
thians iv, 8-10, and vi, 10. 



X. SUFFERING 11 



BITTER-SWEET 

Ah my deare angrie Lord, 

Since thou dost love, yet strike, 

Cast down, yet help afford. 
Sure I will do the like. 

I will complain, yet praise; 

I will bewail, approve; 
And all my sowre-sweet dayes 

I will lament, and love. 



12 JUSTICE 

Introductory: 

Another poem with this title is given, V, 117. 

Date: 

Not found in W. 

Metre: 

Unique, but differs only in rhyming system from 
The Jews, V, 109. Equally wide rh3rmes are 
found in Ungratefulnesse, IV, 39; Complain- 
ing, VI, 27; Sighs and Grones, VI, 37. 

Subject: 

God's ways are incomprehensible, made so by the 
incomprehensibility of our own. The first stanza 
describes God*s ways, the second ours. As God*s 
are always connected, the lines are inwoven (as in 
A Wreath, IV, 115). But ours are essentially dis- 
jointed and contradictory. Ezekiel xviii, 25, 29. 

Notes: 

7. Thou givest me a fitting return for my own way- 
wardness. The former four paradoxes seemed, 
these four are, insoluble. 
9. Jfea»i=intend, aim at. So The Church-Porch, 
m, 53, 1. 334. For the thought, cf. Love Un- 
known, V, 183, 1. 59; The Method, V, 197, 1. 15. 
11. Cf. Affliction, IV, 139, 1. 48, and The Answer, 
IV, 147, 1. 7. 



X. SUFFERING 13 



JUSTICE 

I CANNOT skill of these thy wayes. 
Lordy thou didst make me, yet thou woundest me; 
Lord, thou dost wound me, yet thou dost relieve 
me; 
Lord, thou relievest, yet I die by thee; 4 

Lord, thou dost kill me, yet thou dost reprieve me. 

But when I mark my life and praise, 

Thy justice me most fitly payes; 
For I do praise thee, yet I praise thee not; 
• My prayers mean thee, yet my prayers stray; 
I would do well, yet sinne the hand hath got; 10 
My said doth love thee, yet it loves delay, 

I cannot skill of these my wayes. 



14 GRIEVE NOT THE HOLY SPIRIT 

Introductory : 

Cf. Vaughan's Jesus Weeping. One other poem 
Herbert has entitled with a verse of Scripture, 
Our Life is Hid with Christ in God, IV, 79. 

Date: 

Not found in W. 

Metre : 

Unique. 

Subject: 

That God is grieved over my sins shall make me 
grieve the more. Cf. Affliction, VI, 31, 1. 15. 
The Holy Spirit is addressed in the first stanza, 
himself in the next three, God in the last two. 

Notes : 

1. Dove, the emblem of the Holy Spirit, as in Whit- 
sunday, III, 157, 1. 1. 
5. /, emphatic, in contrast with God. — In three other 
passages in which a worm is mentioned (The 
Church-Porch, III, 55, 1. 339; Peace, IV, 173, 
1. 17; Church-Rents and Schismes, V, 105, 1. 3) 
it appears as a destructive creature. Here and in 
The Church-Porch, III, 45, 1. 261, and in Sighs 
AND Grones, VI, 37, 1. 5, it is a type of insignifi- 
cance. Psalm xxii, 6. 
10. Tears being impossible in death (Death, IV, 59, 
1. 12), as long as you weep you may five. Or if, my 
heart, you do separate from the body, then melt 



X. SUFFERING 15 



GRIEVE NOT THE HOLY SPIRIT, &c. 

(EPHESIANS VI, 30) 

And art thou grieved, sweet and sacred Dove, 
When I am sowre 
And crosse thy love ? 
Grieved for me ? The God of strength and power 
Griev'd for a worm, which when I tread 5 
I passe away and leave it dead ? 

Then weep mine eyes, the God of love doth grieve. 
Weep foolish heart. 
And weeping live. 
For ,death is drie as dust. Yet if ye part, 10 

End as the night whose sable hue 
Your sinnes expresse: melt into dew. 



16 GRIEVE NOT THE HOLY SPIRIT 



into such drops as mark the close of night. The 
same allusion in Church-Rents and Schismes, 
V, 107, 1. 30. 

15. As punctuated here and in ed. 1633 this must mean, 
" Give mirth no answer." 

19. The Itde was the favorite musical instrument of 
Herbert's day, chiefly employed, Hke our guitar, 
to furnish accompaniment to song. It was pear- 
shaped, with a rounded back and many strings. 
In The Temple Herbert names it four times and 
alludes to it as many more. 

23. So The Church-Floore, V, 167, 1. 15. 

24. Bowels =piiyt sympathy. 

28. If water never ceases to run from a spring, and 
run not merely to reKeve thirst, what shall I do 
who have much greater need to cleanse myself by 
continual flowing.^ Deniall, IV, 95, 1. 27, has 
Deferre no time. 

30. / am no Cryst(dl=not clear and free from stain. 

31. Still= always. 



X. SUFFERING 17 



When sawcie mirth shall knock or call at doore, 
Cry out, Get hence, 
Or cry no more. 15 

Almightie God doth grieve, he puts on sense. 
I sinne not to my grief alone, 
But to my God's too; he doth grone. 

Oh take thy lute, and tune it to a strain 

Which may with thee 20 

All day complain. 
There can no discord but in ceasing be. 
Marbles can weep; and surely strings 
More bowels have then such hard things. 

Lord, I adjudge my self to tears and grief, 25 
Ev'n endlesse tears 
Without rehef . 
If a cleare spring for me no time forbears. 
But runnes although I be not drie, 
I am no Crystall, what shall I ? 30 

Yet if I wail not still, since still to wail 
Nature denies, 
And flesh would fail 
If my deserts were masters of mine eyes, 34 
Lord, pardon, for thy sonne makes good 
My want of tears with store of bloud. 



18 CONFESSION 



Date: 

Not found in W. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

No peace in secret sin. 

Notes: 

5. Ti/Z=a compartment within a drawer, usually for 

money. Cf. Ungratefulnesse, IV, 41, 1. 29. 
8. Work and winde. Herbert uses this combination 
twice elsewhere, Jordan, III, 93, 1. 13, and The 
World, IV, 23, 1. 13, and characteristically modi- 
fied in BusiNESSE, V, 139, 1. 9. 
12. A curious parallel in Jacula Prudentum: Wealth 
is like rheum ; it falls on the weakest part. 



X. SUFFERING 19 



CONFESSION 

O WHAT a cunning guest 
Is this same grief! Within my heart I made 

Closets; and in them many a chest; 

And like a master in my trade, 
In those chests, boxes; in each box, a till: 5 
Yet grief knows all, and enters when he will. 

No scrue, no piercer can 
Into a piece of timber work and winde 

As God's afflictions into man, 

When he a torture hath designed. 10 

They are too subtill for the subt'Uest hearts, 
And fall, like rheumes, upon the tendrest parts. 



20 CONFESSION 



14. The mole is again mentioned in Grace, IV, 107, 
1. 13. 

15. Cf. The Agonie, V, 153, 1. 12. 

17. Keyes. This is Herbert's regular pronunciation 
(Easter, III, 153, 1. 11; H. Communion, III, 195, 
1. 21). He may seem to give it our sound in The 
Pearl, IV, 177, 1. 9, and Longing, VI, 45, 1. 48, 
but probably does not. 

19. All his house knowes that there is no help for a fault 
done but confession: Country Parson, X. 

22. This rhyme occurs again in Content, IV, 151 , 1. 20. 

29. Them=day and diamond. 

30. To = compared to. 



X. SUFFERING 21 



We are the earth, and they, 
Like moles within us, heave, and cast about; 

And till they foot and clutch their prey 15 
They never cool, much lesse give out. 
No smith can make such locks but they have keyes. 
Closets are halls to them; and hearts, high-way es. 

Onely an open breast 
Doth shut them out, so that they cannot enter. 20 
Or, if they enter, cannot rest 
But quickly seek some new adventure. 
Smooth open hearts no fastning have, but fiction 
Doth give a hold and handle to affliction. 

Wherefore my faults and sinnes, 25 

Lord, I acknowledge. Take thy plagues away. 
For since confession pardon winnes, 
I challenge here the brightest day, 
The clearest diamond. Let them do their best. 
They shall be thick and cloudie to my breast. 30 



22 THE STORM 

Date: 

The natural place for this poem seems to be here, 
because it pictures distresses of the iiyier life, and is 
not included in W. But it may have been written 
shortly after Artillerie, IV, 157, and The Starre, 

IV, 161, and still not have been copied into W. 
Metre: 

Used also in Easter, III, 153. 

Subject: 

The calm of God's abode invaded by human sup- 
plication. 

Notes : 

6. Ofeyec^= objectify, set before their faces. 

7. (Storms = meteor showers, Hke those which give 
occasion to the poems, Artillerie, IV, 157, and 
The Starre, IV, 161. The reason for mentioning 
them here, however, is not very plain. Perhaps hav- 
ing spoken in the previous verse of tempests of wind 
and rain as storms here below, his thought passes 
on to the celestial storms as more nearly resembhng 
those with which he proposes to assail high heaven. 

12. So reversed thunder of Prayer, III, 181, 1. 6. 

13. The musick here may be that musich in the spheres 
mentioned in Artillerie, IV, 157, 1. 9, or the 
tunes mentioned in Gratefulnesse, V, 43, 1. 22, 
or most probably the acclamations of Revelation 

V, 13. 



X. SUFFERING 23 



THE STORM 

If as the windes and waters here below 

Do flie and flow, 

My sighs and tears as busie were above, 

Sure they would move 

And much affect thee, as tempestuous times 5 

Amaze poore mortals and object their crimes. 

Starres have their storms, ev'n in a high degree, 

As well as we. 

A throbbing conscience spurred by remorse • 9 

Hath a strange force. 

It quits the earth, and mounting more and more. 

Dares to assault thee and besiege thy doore. 

There it stands knocking, to thy musick's wrong, 

And drowns the song. 

Glorie and honour are set by till it 15 

An answer get. 

Poets have wrong'd poore storms. Such dayes are 
best; 

They purge the aire without, within the breast. 



24^ SION 



Date: 

Not found in W. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

The Christian Temple, in contrast with the Jewish, 
is built within the heart, and has human aspirations 
for its liturgy. 1 Corinthians iii, 16; 2 Corinthians 
vi, 16; Revelation xxi, 22; John ii, 21. For other 
places where Herbert uses the word templey see note 
on The Windows, V, 15, 1. 3. 

Notes: 

9. Habakkuk i, 3, 4. 
17. 1 Kings vii, 23, 51; Acts vii, 47, 48. 
21. Quick =^Ying in contrast with dead, 1. 20. The 
thought occurs again in Gratefulnesse, V, 43, 
1. 19. 



X. SUFFERING 25 



SION 



Lord, with what glorie wast thou serv'd of old, 
When Solomon's temple stood and flourished! 
Where most things were of purest gold. 

The wood was all embellished 
With flowers and carvings, mysticall and rare. 5 
All show'd the builder's, crav'd the seer's care. 

Yet all this glorie, all this pomp and state 
Did not affect thee much, was not thy aim; 
Something there was that sow'd debate. 

Wherefore thou quitt'st thy ancient claim, 10 
And now thy Architecture meets with sinne; 
For all thy frame and fabrick is within. 

There thou art struggling with a peevish heart, 

Which sometimes crosseth thee, thou sometimes it. 

The fight is hard on either part. 15 

Great God doth fight, he doth submit. 
All Solomon's sea of brasse and world of stone 
Is not so deare to thee as one good grone. 

And truly brasse and stones are heavie things, 
Tombes for the dead, not temples fit for thee. 20 
But grones are quick and full of wings. 

And all their motions upward be. 
And ever as they mount, like larks they sing. 
The note is sad, yet musick for a king. 



26 COMPLAINING 



Date: 

Not found in W. 
Metre: 

Unique. In each pair of verses the last lines rhyme 
together, while the third line of each stanza is 
broken in the middle. 
Subject: 

Why so severe, — great as thou art and I so small ? 
Notes: 
3. So Submission, V, 205, 1. 1, and 1 Corinthians 

i, 24. 
5. So in Deniall, IV, 95, 1. 16. 
7. The deed and stone=a\\ that has ever been done 
and said, corresponding with power and vnsdome 
of 1. 3. 
13. Shall I have but a single attribute, grief, correspond- 
ing to thine only one, justice ? 
16. Feeble and brief as I am, make me less so or more. 
So Grace, IV, 107, 1. 22. The rhyming of the 
stanza expresses these alternatives. 



X. SUFFERING 27 



COMPLAINING 

•Do not beguile my heart, 
Because thou art 
My power and wisdome. Put me not to shame, 
Because I am 4 

Thy clay that weeps, thy dust that calls. 

Thou art the Lord of glorie. 
The deed and storie 
Are both thy due. But I a silly flie, 
That live or die 
According as the weather falls. 10 

Art thou all justice. Lord ? 
Shows not thy word 
More attributes ? Am I all throat or eye. 
To weep or crie ? 
Have I no parts but those of grief ? 15 

Let not thy wrathfuU power 
Afflict my houre. 
My inch of Hfe. Or let thy gracious power 
Contract my houre. 
That I may cHmbe and finde relief. 20 



28 AFFLICTION 



Introductory: 

Besides the poems which follow, two others with 
this title are given, IV, 43 and 135. 

Date : 

Not found in W. 

Metre : 

Unique. 

Subject: 

The same as that of The Thanksgiving, IV, 83, 
the impossibihty of matching Christ's sufferings 
with our own. Only the turn is added here : Why, 
then, should I have these perpetual and useless 
griefs ? 

Notes : 

5. 1 Corinthians xv, 31. In partial payment of thy 
death, I die daily during a Kfe as long as Methuse- 
lah's. 
10. They would show a color less vivid than thy blood- 
stained sweat. Luke xxii, 44. Cf. Justice, V, 117, 
1. 5. 
15. Imprest= earnest-money. From the French pret= 
ready. "Earnest-money was called prest-money, 
and to give a man such money was to imprest him : " 
Skeat. 



X. SUFFERING 29 



AFFLICTION 

Kill me not ev'ry day, 
Thou Lord of life; since thy one death for me 
Is more then all my deaths can be, 

Though I in broken pay 
Die over each houre of Methusalem's stay. 5 

If all men's tears were let 
Into one common sewer, sea, and brine, 

What were they all compar'd to thine ? 
Wherein if they were set, 9 
They would discolour thy most bloudy sweat. 

Thou art my grief alone. 
Thou Lord, conceal it not. And as thou art 
All my delight, so all my smart. 

Thy crosse took up in one, 
By way of imprest, all my future mone. 15 



30 AFFLICTION 



Date : 

Not found in W. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject: 

Fellowship of Christ in our sufferings. Cf . Grieve 

Not, VI, 15. 
Notes: 

7. Job xxxiii, 4. 

8. My tallies=mj measure, how much breath I can 
spare. 

9. What's then behinde .^=what is there left ? 

10. Referring to the popular belief that strength is im- 
paired by sighing. So H. Communion, III, 197 
1. 31, L'Envoy, VI, 141, 1. 14, and Shakespeare 
Hamlet, iv, 7: "Like a spendthrift sigh that hurts 
by easing.'* 

17. Those who bemoan thy sufferings on the cross dis- 
parage what thou art doing for us now; for thou 
diest daily. 1 Corinthians xv, 31. 



X. SUFFERING 31 



AFFLICTION 

My heart did heave, and there came forth, O 

God / 
By that I knew that thou wast in the grief. 
To guide and govern it to my rehef , 
Making a scepter of the rod. 

Hadst thou not had thy part, 5 

Sure the unruly sigh had broke my heart. 

But since thy breath gave me both Kfe and shape, 
Thou knowst my talHes ; and when there's assign'd 
So much breath to a sigh, what's then behinde ? 
Or if some yeares with it escape, 10 

The sigh then onely is 
A gale to bring me sooner to my blisse. 

Thy life on earth was grief, and thou art still 
Constant unto it, making it to be 
A point of honour now to grieve in me, 15 

And in thy members suffer ill. 
They who lament one crosse, 
Thou dying dayly, praise thee to thy losse. 



32 AFFLICTION 



Introductory: 

In W. this poem is entitled Tentation. 
Date: 

Not found in W. Possibly 1. 25-28 allude to his 

being in the priesthood. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject: 

"Unite my heart to fear thy name:'* Psalm Ixxxvi, 

11. 
Notes: 

3. Psalm xxxi, 12. 

4. Psalm Ixxi, 7. 

9. Scattered. My thoughts sprinkle my heart with 
piercing pains, as watering-pots do flowers with 
Hfe-giving drops. 



X. SUFFERING 



AFFLICTION 

Broken in pieces all asunder, 
Lord, hunt me not, 
A thing forgot, 
Once a poore creature, now a wonder, 

A wonder tortur'd in the space 5 

Betwixt this world and that of grace. 

My thoughts are all a case of knives, 
Wounding my heart 
With scattered smart. 
As watring pots give flowers their lives. 10 
Nothing their furie can controU 
While they do wound and prick my soul. 



34 AFFLICTION 



13. All my attendants = the many physical functions 
which wait upon my life. He rightly connects his 
melancholy with bodily disturbance. 

15. Before my very face. 

18. Contend with one another. 

25. As described in 1. 13. 

30. And — what is better still — reach thee. 



X. SUFFERING 35 



All my attendants are at strife, 
Quitting their place 
Unto my face. 15 

Nothing performs the task of life. 

The elements are let loose to fight, 
And while I live trie out their right. 

Oh help, my God! Let not their plot 

Kill them and me, 20 

And also thee. 
Who art my Ufe. Dissolve the knot. 
As the sunne scatters by his light 
All the rebellions of the night. 

Then shall those powers which work for grief 
Enter thy pay, 26 

And day by day 
Labour thy praise and my reUef ; 

With care and courage building me. 
Till I reach heav'n, and much more thee. 



36 SIGHS AND GRONES 



Date: 

Not found in W. Is thy steward of 1. 8 a priest ? 
Metre: 

Unique. Equally wide rhymes are found in Un- 

GRATEFULNESSE, IV, 39, in JusTiCE, VI, 13, and 

in Complaining, VI, 27. 
Subject: 

An appeal for mercy on grounds of insignificance. 
Notes: 
9. Stock may mean tree trunk, as in Grace, IV, 107, 

1. 1. But more probably it has its agricultural 

meaning, of cattle on a farm. 



X. SUFFERING 37 



SIGHS AND GRONES 

O DO not use me 
After my sinnes! Look not on my desert. 

But on thy gloiie! Then thou wilt reform 
And not refuse me; for thou onely art 

The mightie God, but I a sillie worm. 5 

O do not bruise me! 

O do not urge me! 
For what account can thy ill steward make ? 

I have abus'd thy stock, destroyed thy woods, 
Suckt all thy magazens. My head did ake, 10 
Till it found out how to consume thy goods. 
O do not scourge me! 



38 SIGHS AND GRONES 



14. Exodus X, 22. 

16. Sow*d fig-leaves. Genesis iii, 7. 

17. Cf. The Priesthood, IV, 169, 1. 11. 

20. rwni'<i=" up-turned, that the dregs may be drunk. 
The word full shows this is the allusion:" A. B. 
Grosart. But there is also a recollection of Revela- 
tion xvi, 1. 

28. Cordiall and Corrosive = that which renews the Kfe 
or wastes it away. So Shakespeare: "Care is no 
cure, but rather corrosive:" 1 Henry VI, iii, 3. 

29. The bitter 6oa:=that which contains deaiht judg- 
ment^ the rod, the corrosive. 



X. SUFFERING 39 



O do not bKnde me! 
I have deserv'd that an Egyptian night 

Should thicken all my powers, because my lust 
Hath still sow'd fig-leaves to exclude thy light. 16 
But I am frailtie, and already dust. 

O do not grinde me! 

O do not fill me 
With the tum'd viall of thy bitter wrath! 20 

For thou hast other vessels full of bloud, 
A part whereof my Saviour emptied hath, 
Ev'n unto death. Since he di'd for my good, 
O do not kill me! 

But O reprieve me! 25 
For thou hast life and death at thy command. 
Thou art both Judge and Saviour, feast and 
rod, 
Cordiall and Corrosive. Put not thy hand 
Into the bitter box, but O my God, 

My God, relieve me! 30 



40 LONGING 



Introductory: 

Set to music by Henry Purcell (1658-1695) in the 
Treasury of Music. 

Date: 

Not found in W. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

The plan of the poem is to have no plan, but to 
be only a succession of disjointed cries, lamenting 
absence. The poem bears throughout a general 
resemblance to Psalm cii. ' 

Notes: 

9. Genesis iii, 17. 



X. SUFFERING 41 



LONGING 

With sick and famisht eyes, 
With doubling knees and weary bones, 
To thee my cries. 
To thee my grones, 
To thee my sighs, my tears ascend. 5 

No end ? 

My throat, my soul is hoarse. 
My heart is withered like a ground 
Which thou dost curse. 
My thoughts turn round 10 
And make me giddie. Lord, I fall. 
Yet call. 

From thee all pitie flows. 
Mothers are kinde because thou art. 

And dost dispose 15 

To them a part. 
Their infants them; and they suck thee 
More free. 



LONGING 



21. Psalm xxxi, 2. 

26. Isaiah xlviii, 10. A furnace is also mentioned in 

Love Unknown, V, 181, 1. 26. 
35. Psalm xciv, 9. Cf. Deniall, IV, 95, 1. 14. 
41. So in The Temper, IV, 109, 1. 14, derived from 

Genesis ii, 7. 



X. SUFFERING 43 

Bowels of pitie, heare! 
Lord of my soul, love of my minde, 20 

Bow down thine eare! 
Let not the winde 
Scatter my words, and in the same 
Thy name! 

Look on my sorrows round! 25 

Mark well my furnace! O what flames. 
What heats abound! 
What griefs, what shames! 
Consider, Lord! Lord, bow thine eare 

And heare! 30 

Lord Jesu, thou didst bow 
Thy dying head upon the tree; 
O be not now 
More dead to me! 
Lord heare ! Shall he that made the eare, 35 
Not heare F 

Behold, thy dust doth stirre, 
It moves, it creeps, it aims at thee. 
Wilt thou def erre 
To succour me, 40 

Thy pile of dust, wherein each crumme 
Sayes, Come? 



44 LONGING 



45-48. To things hast thou given free rein, locking thy- 
self from all appeal against their course ? So in The 
Country Parson, XXXIV: Those that he findes in 
the peaceable states he adviseth to be very vigilant and 
not to let go the raines as soon as the horse goes easie. 

49-52. In the divine order of the world, thought of 
as a kind of book of contracts which assigns to 
each thing its own procedure, the appealing look of 
a humble soul has been known to intervene. So 
Prayer, III, 181, 1. 7. 

53. Cf. Providence, V, 93, 1. 133. The figure of life 
as a banquet with human beings as the guests 
was first brought forward by Lucretius, Bk. Ill, 
938: 

" Cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis 
Aequo animoque capis securam, stulte, quietem ? " 



X. SUFFERING 45 

To thee help appertains. 
Hast thou left all things to their course, 

And laid the reins 45 

Upon the horse ? 
Is all lockt ? Hath a sinner's plea 
No key? 

Indeed the world's thy book, 
Where all things have their lease assign'd; 

Yet a meek look 51 

Hath interlin'd. 
Thy board is full, yet humble guests 
Finde nests. 

Thou tarriest, while I die 55 

And fall to nothing. Thou dost reigne 
And rule on high, 
While I remain 
In bitter grief. Yet am I stil'd 

Thy childe. 60 

Lord, didst thou leave thy throne 
Not to reKeve ? How can it be 

That thou art grown 
Thus hard to me ? 
Were sinne aUve, good cause there were 65 
To bear. 



46 LONGING 



67. Romans vi, 11. 

69. That=sm. 

70. These=t}ij promises. 

79. This iterated rhyme occurs also in 1. 19, 30, and 36. 



X. SUFFERING 47 



But now both sinne is dead, 
And all thy promises Kve and bide. 
That wants his head; 
These speak and chide, 70 

And in thy bosome poure my tears 
As theirs. 

Lord Jesu, heare my heart. 
Which hath been broken now so long. 

That ev'ry part 75 

Hath got a tongue! 
Thy beggars grow; rid them away 
To day. 

My love, my sweetnesse, heare! 
By these thy feet, at which my heart 80 

Lies all the yeare, 
Pluck out thy dart 
And heal my troubled breast which cryes, 
Which dyes. 



48 THE GLIMPSE 



Date: 

Not found in W. See also 1. 30. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

The tantalizing shortness of deUght. In contrast to 
the jull-ey'd love of The Glance, VI, 91, 1. 20. 

Notes: 
8-10. Be not like winds and waves which quickly pass, 
though hardly blamable. Be rather Hke flowers 
which Knger. Herbert usually views the flower as a 
type of fragility. See The Flower, VI, 65. 
15. So delight, which should refresh Hke water, makes 
me burn the more. 



X. SUFFERING 49 



THE GLIMPSE 

Whither away delight ? 
Thou cam'st but now; wilt thou so soon depart, 

And give me up to night ? 
For many weeks of Kngring pain and smart 
But one half houre of comfort for my heart ? 5 

Me thinks delight should have 
More skill in musick and keep better time. 

Wert thou a winde or wave, 
They quickly go and come with lesser crime. 9 
Flowers look about, and die not in their prime. 

Thy short abode and stay 
Feeds not, but addes to the desire of meat. 

Lime begg'd of old (they say) 
A neighbour spring to cool his inward heat, 
Which by the spring's accesse grew much more 

great. 15 



50 THE GLIMPSE 



19. This =i]ie probable brevity of thy stay. 

23-25. Though fulness of delight is stored in the world 
to come, yet bhss-bringing gHmpses need not too 
much disclose what rightly is kept sealed. 

26-28. Do not think thy coming will interfere with work 
of mine. Grief and sin interfere. While thou art 
with me, I will keep my wheel in motion, making 
indeed thy stay seem short, 1. 11. If, however, stay 
is used, as frequently by Herbert (Home, VI, 85, 
87, 89, 1. 2, 31, 76), in the sense of be absent, then 
the meaning must be, " My wheel is of no impor- 
tance, if only thy absence be short." 

30. Court =Sb place of festival; and probably there is 
in Herbert's mind the farther suggestion, I shall 
be borne away from Bemerton to where I formerly 
was gay. 



X. SUFFERING 51 



In hope of thee my heart 
Pickt here and there a crumme, and would not die; 

But constant to his part 
Whenas my fears foretold this, did replie, 
A slender thread a gentle guest will tie. 20 

Yet if the heart that wept 
Must let thee go, return when it doth knock. 

Although thy heap be kept 
For future times, the droppings of the stock 24 
May oft break forth, and never break the lock. 

If I have more to spinne. 
The wheel shall go so that thy stay be short. 

Thou knowst how grief and sinne 
Disturb the work. O make me not their sport. 
Who by thy coming may be made a court! 30 



52 A PARODIE 



Introductory : 

In modern parody a serious poem is given a comic 
turn. The word originally did not imply this de- 
basement. Any readjustment of a poem to a new 
meaning was a parody. Herbert has here taken one 
of Donne's exquisite love-songs and recast it in a 
religious sense. The subject of both poems is the 
same, — the pain of absence. The first half of 
Donne's poem, which Herbert copies most closely, 
runs thus: 

"Soul's joy, now I am gone. 
And you alone — 
Which cannot be, 
Since I must leave myself with thee. 
And carry thee with me — 
Yet when unto our eyes 

Absence denies 
Each other's sight, 
And makes to us a constant night, 
When others change to light; 
O, give no way to grief. 
But let relief 
Of mutual love 
This wonder to the vulgar prove. 
Our bodies, not we, move." 

Vaughan has parodied Herbert in more than 
twenty poems. 



X. SUFFERING 53 



A PARODIE 

Soul's joy, when thou art gone, 
And I alone — 
Which cannot be. 
Because thou dost abide with me 

And I depend on thee — 5 

Yet when thou dost suppresse 

The cheerfulnesse 

Of thy abode, 
And in my powers not stirre abroad. 

But leave me to my load; 10 

O what a damp and shade 

Doth me invade! 

No stormie night 
Can so afflict or so affright 

As thy eclipsed light. 15 



54 A PARODIE 



Date: 

Not found in W. The date of Donne's poem is not 
known. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject: 

The pain of absence. 
Notes: 
8. Abode: see 1. 4. 
20. The subject of say is Sinne. Cf. 1. 24, 29. 
23. Cf. Assurance, V, 225, 1. 7. 



X. SUFFERING 55 



Ah Lord! Do not withdraw, 

Lest want of aw 

Make Sinne appeare, 
And when thou dost but shine lesse cleare. 
Say that thou art not here. 20 

And then what life I have. 
While Sinne doth rave. 
And falsly boast 
That I may seek but thou art lost. 

Thou, and alone thou, know'st. 25 

O what a deadly cold 

Doth me infold! 

I half beleeve 
That Sinne sayes true. But while I grieve. 
Thou com'st and dost relieve. 30 



56 DISCIPLINE 



Date: 

Not found in W. 
Metre : 

Unique. 
Subject: 

Love is more effective than anger, and more worthy 

of thee. 
Notes: 

2. Jeremiah x, 24. 
12. Thy 6ooA;==the H. Scriptures; see III, 187. 



X. SUFFERING 57 



DISCIPLINE 

Throw away thy rod. 
Throw away thy wrath. 

my God, 
Take the gentle path. 

For my heart's desire 5 

Unto thine is bent. 

1 aspire 
To a full consent. 

Not a word or look 
I affect to own, 10 

But by book. 
And thy book alone. 

Though I fail, I weep. 
Though I halt in pace. 

Yet I creep 15 

To the throne of grace. 



58 DISCIPLINE 



22. 1 beKeve this is the only case where Herbert figures 

Love as a man. 
27. Love brought Christ from heaven to earth. 



X. SUFFERING 



Then let wrath remove. 
Love will do the deed: 

For with love 
Stonie hearts will bleed. 20 

Love is swift of foot. 
Love's a man of wane, 

And can shoot, 
And can hit from farre. 

Who can scape his bow ? 25 

That which wrought on thee, 

Brought thee low, 
Needs must work on me. 

Throw away thy rod. 
Though man frailties hath, 30 

Thou art God. 
Throw away thy wrath. 



60 JOSEPH'S COAT 



Introductory: 

Joseph's coat was of many colors. Genesis xxxvii^ 3. 

In 1640 Thomas Fuller published a volume of 

sermons under the title of Joseph's Party-Coloured 

Coat. 
Date: 

Not found in W. Last two lines show that it is late. 
Metre: 

Of seventeen sonnets, six — like this — are in the 

Shakespearian form. 
Subject: 

My grief is diverse. If single, it would destroy me; 

but since God gives it the changefulness of joy, I 

can even sing it. 
Notes : 
3. I would suggest that in the place of will we read 

right. There is no other case in Herbert of a pair of 

unrhymed Hues in a sonnet. 
6. His=ii3. 

8. Both=gnei and smart, mental and physical dis- 
tress. These, having seized my heart, would find 

means to carry off my body too, claiming both heart 

and body as theirs. 

10. The race = same as runne of 1. 8. 

11. Herbert frequently abbreviates entice to tice; so 
The Forerunners, VI, 79, 1. 21. 



X. SUFFERING 61 



JOSEPH'S COAT 

Wounded I sing, tormented I indite. 

Thrown down I fall into a bed and rest. 
Sorrow hath chang'd its note; such is his will 

Who changeth all things as him pleaseth best. 
For well he knows if but one grief and smart 5 

Among my many had his full career. 
Sure it would carrie with it ev'n my heart, 

And both would runne untill they found a biere 
To fetch the bodie, both being due to grief. 

But he hath spoiFd the race, and giv'n to an- 
guish 10 
One of Joye's coats, ticing it with reUef 

To linger in me, and together languish. 
I live to shew his power who once did bring 
My joyes to weepy and now my griefs to sing. 



62 JESU 



Date; 

Not found in W. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

Even when broken by calamity, my heart finds rest 
in Christ. The reverse of this theme is played with 
in The Altar, III, 121, where the unorganized 
but sacred parcels of the heart are seeking unity. 

Notes: 
9. Herbert rarely puns. With all his readiness to trace 
remote intellectual relations, he has no fondness for 
word-play as has Shakespeare and the majority of 
his contemporaries. Perhaps in this strange poem 
he has in mind Donne's Broken Heart, especially 
its last verse with the hnes: 

" I think my breast hath all 
Those pieces stiQ, though they be not unite." 

Queen Mary said when dying that if her heart were 
opened, the word Calais would be found there. 
Browning refers to this saying of Queen Mary's 
when writing in De Gustibus : 

"Open my heart and you will see 
Graved inside of it, 'Italy.'" 



X. SUFFERING 63 



JESU 

Jesu is in my heart, his sacred name 

Is deeply carved there. But th' other week 
A great affliction broke the Kttle frame, 

Ev'n all to pieces ; which I went to seek. 
And first I found the comer where was J, 5 

After where E S, and next where U was 
graved. 
When I had got these parcels, instantly 

I sat me down to spell them; and perceived 
That to my broken heart he was I ease you. 

And to my whole is J ESU, 10 



64 THE FLOWER 



Introductory: 

First sketches of this poem may be found in Re- 
pentance, rV, 101, and Employment, IV, 143. 
Imitated by Vaughan in his Unprofitableness. 

Date: 

Not found in W. See also 1. 36. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

In Kability to change, my soul is Hke a flower. Job 
xiv, 2; Psalm ciii, 15; Isaiah xl, 6. 

Notes : 

3. Demean. Dr. Grosart thinks this equivalent to 
demesne or domain. I cannot join it to the con- 
text in this sense. May it not be another form of 
demeanor = bearing, or carriage ? The passage 
would then signify: Flowers give positive pleasure 
by their own gay show, but a negative pleasure also 
when we recall the wintry time preceding. Cf . Psalm 
xc, 15. So God's coming gives pleasure, through 
presence felt and absence remembered. 

4. Coleridge, speaking of this whole poem as "deH- 
cious," calls attention to the beautiful succession of 
delayed syllables in the first half of this line. 



X. SUFFERING 65 



THE FLOWER 



How fresh, O Lord, how sweet and clean 
Are thy returns! Ev'n as the flowers in spring. 

To which, besides their own demean. 
The late-past frosts tributes of pleasure bring. 

Grief melts away 5 

Like snow in May, 
As if there were no such cold thing. 

Who would have thought my shrivel'd heart 
Could have recover'd greennesse ^ It was gone 

Quite under ground, as flowers depart 10 
To see their mother-root when they have blown; 
Where they together 
All the hard weather. 
Dead to the world, keep house unknown. 

These are thy wonders. Lord of power, 15 
Killing and quickning, bringing down to hell 

And up to heaven in an houre; 
Making a chiming of a passing-bell. 
We say amisse. 
This or that is; 20 

Thy word is all, if we could spell. 



66 THE FLOWER 



10. So in Parentalia, V, 13, describing his mother's 
garden after she has left it, he bids the flowers 
Cunda ad radices redeant, tumvlosque patemos. 

16. So Wisdom xvi, 13. 

18. Turning a funeral knell into a bridal peal. 

21. Spell=mieTpTet So The Temper, IV, 113, 1. 16, 
and A Dialoque-Antheme, VI, 103, 1. 4. 

25. Offering =vLp]ii^ng itself toward. 

28. Joining to produce tears. 

34. The coldest experience on earth is warm com- 
pared with thy chilling frown. Same phrase in The 
Search, V, 223, 1. 53. 

36. In age. The poem was written late. 

39. "The poem, The Flower, is especially affecting, 
and to me such a phrase as and relish versing ex- 
presses a sincerity, a reality which I would unwill- 
ingly exchange for the more dignified *and once 
more love the muse : ' *' S. T. Coleridge in a letter to 
W. CoUins. 

45. Which=i}ns knowledge. 

48. Store, a favorite word with Herbert = abundance, 
superfluity. Proud through prosperity. Shake- 
speare in Sonnet LXIV pictures the land border- 
ing the ocean as "Increasing store with loss and 
loss with store." 



X. SUFFERING 67 

that I once past changing were, 

Fast in thy Paradise, where no flower can wither! 
Many a spring I shoot up fair, 24 

Offering at heav'n, growing and groning thither; 
Nor doth my flower 
Want a spring-showre, 
My sinnes and I joining together. 

But while I grow in a straight Kne, 29 

Still upwards bent, as if heav'n were mine own. 

Thy anger comes, and I dechne. 
What frost to that ? What pole is not the zone 
Where all things burn. 
When thou dost turn. 
And the least frown of thine is shown ? 35 

And now in age I bud again. 
After so many deaths I hve and write; , 

1 once more smell the dew and rain, 
And rehsh versing. O my onely Kght, 

It cannot be 40 

That I am he 
On whom thy tempests fell all night. 

These are thy wonders. Lord of love, 
To make us see we are but flowers that glide. 
Which when we once can finde and prove, 
Thou hast a garden for us where to bide. 46 

Who would be more, 
SwelKng through store. 
Forfeit their Paradise by their pride. 



Interior of liemerton Church. Herbert is buried in thejloor on the 
right of the altar. 



XI 
DEATH 



PREFACE 

IN the parish record of Bemerton appears this 
entry: "Mr. George Herbert Esq., Parson of 
Fuggleston and Bemerton, was buried 3 day of 
March 1632." This record is confirmed by Her- 
bert's will, which was proved on March 12, 1632. 
As the new year then began on Lady Day, March 
25, the year would be our 1633. This date is con- 
firmed by Herbert's letter to Ferrar, inclosing his 
Notes on Valdesso, which bears date of September 
29, 1632 ; and by the will of his niece, which was 
proved by Herbert in October, 1632. Herbert 
was instituted on April 26, 1630, so that the life 
at Bemerton covered almost exactly three years. 
Aubrey tells how Herbert " was buried (according 
to his own desire) with the singing service for the 
burial of the dead, by the singing men of Sarum." 
He was laid, according to Walton, "in his own 
Church under the Altar, and cover'd with a Grave- 
stone without any inscription." He died without 
issue. His wife, whom Aubrey thought a strikingly 
handsome woman, a few years later married Sir 
Robert Cook, and by him had children. 

Herbert had long notice of death. Consumption 
overcame him slowly, and allowed him to retain 
his mental powers to the last. Until within a few 



72 PREFACE TO 

months of the end, he read Prayers each day in the 
little chapel opposite his house. And though a 
month before his death Mr. Duncon, sent by Fer- 
rar, found him unable to sit up, his discourse was 
such, Mr. Duncon told Walton, " that after almost 
forty years it remained still fresh in his memory." 
The Sunday before he died he sang his own songs, 
accompanying himself as usual on the lute. Ac- 
cording to Walton he died without pain, in his last 
hour speaking with his family and friend about 
religion, business, and the care of those he was to 
leave. 

To this fact, that Herbert's long dying was a life 
in death, \^e owe the splendid series of his death- 
songs. A few of those included in the preceding 
Group may possibly belong to the period of Crisis ; 
but the great body of them, and probably all that 
appear in the present Group, spring from the last 
year or two of Herbert's life. As we have seen, 
every phase of his inner moods was interesting to 
him, and easily became a poetic subject out of 
which something beautiful might be fashioned. If 
because our distresses do not so readily put on 
a coat of joy, we sometimes hold it half a sin that 
Herbert should put in words the grief he feels, 
we should remember that he published none of 
his poems, and that in poetry he probably found 
one of his few defences against pain. Wounded I 
sing ; tormented I indite^ he says. By objectifying 
his experiences he detaches himself from them. 



DEATH 73 

Donne in his Triple Fool had tried this pallia- 
tive: 

" As th' earth's inward narrow crooked lanes 
Do purge sea-water's fretful salt away, 

I thought if I could draw my pains 

Through rhyme's vexation, I should them allay. 

Grief brought to numbers cannot be so fierce. 
For he tames it that fetters it in verse." 

I have thought it well to gather into a brief final 
Group Herbert's poems which refer to approaching 
death. How unHke they are to the clever verses 
written at Cambridge on the same subject ! All the 
poems of this Group have in them the note of real- 
ity, whether hke The Forerunners and Life 
they mourn the cessation of his verse, Kke Grief 
and Home utter an anguished cry, like The 
Glance and The Daw^ning turn to the sweet 
originall joy of God's love, or like Vertue, Time, 
and A Dialogue-Antheme, sport with the im- 
potence of death. In all of them there is veritable 
experience carried up into well-ordered beauty. 
The methods of Herbert's Life did not forsake 
him in the leaving of it. 



DEATH 



76 THE FORERUNNERS 

Introductory : 

" Though God had magnified him with extraordi- 
nary Gifts, yet said he, God hath broken into my 
study and taken off my Chariot wheels. I have no- 
thing worthy of God : " Oley's Life of Herbert. Cf . 
DULNESSE, V, 207. 

Date : 

Not found in W. He looks back on his work. 

Metre : 

Unique. 

Subject: 

The King's messengers have afl^ed their mark and 
seized my beautiful estate. For the King I culti- 
vated it, and I alone offered him such beauty. If 
he will now take it and me, I am content. 

Notes: 

1. Harbingers (as in The Church Militant, VI, 
125, 1. 84), messengers sent before to prepare 
lodging and announce the coming of the King. — 
The mxirk here and in 1. 35 is the chalking of the 
door with the royal letters. "Alexander Borgia 
said of the expedition of the French into Italy that 
they came with chalk in their hands to mark up 
their lodgings and not with weapons to force their 
passage:" Bacon, Novum Organum, Bk. I, XXXV. 

" Before him a great prophet, to proclaim 
His coming, is sent harbinger." 

Milton, Par. Reg. 1. 70. 

2. The hair turned gray. 



XI. DEATH 77 



THE FORERUNNERS 

The harbingers are come. See, see their mark ! 

White is their colour, and behold my head. 
But must they have my brain ? Must they dispark 
Those sparkUng notions, which therein were 
bred? 
Must dulnesse turn me to a clod ? 5 

Yet have they left me, Thou art still my God. 

Good men ye be to leave me my best room, 
Ev'n all my heart, and what is lodged there. 

I passe not, I, what of the rest become. 
So Thou art still my God be out of fear. 10 
He will be pleased with that dittie; 

And if I please him, I write fine and wittie. 



78 THE FORERUNNERS 

3. Dispark; according to The Church Militant, 
VI, 129, 1. 147, dispark cannot mean extinguish 
sparks, as might erroneously be inferred from the 
play on the word sparkling in 1. 4, but must mean 
drive from the inclosure. 

6. Psalm xxxi, 14. A comforting phrase, like those 
in the note to A True Hymne, V, 27. 

9. 1 passe not=I care not. So Drayton, Elegy of 
Poets and Poesy, 1. 185 (1627) : 

"Let such pieces be 
Spoke of by those that shall come after me, 
I pass not for them." 

Herbert has three other senses of pass, i. e. (1) to 
go beyond, as in The Search, V, 221, 1. 38; (2) 
to go over, as in The Search, V, 221, 1. 36; (3) to 
deliver over, as in Obedience, IV, 181, 1. 8. The 
thought of these two lines is repeated in Jacula 
Prudentum : He loseth nothing that loseth not God. 

11, Dittie=woTds, not music; as in The Banquet, 
V, 57, 1. 50, and ProviDENCE, V, 79, 1. 9. 

13. For the value Herbert set on beautiful diction, see 
the longer account in Jordan, HI, 91. 

15, 16. For his early resolve, see Two Sonnets to 
HIS Mother, III, 79. 

23. The braider^d coat again inFEACE, IV, 173, 1. 9. 

26. Arras, the most beautiful of decorations, as can- 
vas is the coarsest. So The Church-Porch, III, 
47, 1. 270, and Dotage, V, 137, 1. 3. 



XI. DEATH 79 

Farewell sweet phrases, lovely metaphors. 

But will ye leave me thus ? When ye before 
Of stews and brothels onely knew the doores, 15 

Then did I wash you with my tears, and more, 
Brought you to Church well drest and clad. 
My God must have my best, ev'n all I had. 

Lovely enchanting language, sugar-cane, 

Hony of roses, whither wilt thou flie ^ 20 

Hath some fond lover tic'd thee to thy bane ? 
And wilt thou leave the Church and love a stie ? 
Fie, thou wilt soil thy broider'd coat. 

And hurt thy self and him that sings the note. 

Let foolish lovers, if they will love dung, 25 

With canvas, not with arras clothe their shame. 

Let foUie speak in her own native tongue. 
True beautie dwells on high. Ours is a flame 
But borrowed thence to Hght us thither. 29 

Beautie and beauteous words should go together. 

Yet if you go, I passe not. Take your way! 

For, Thou art still my God, is all that ye 
Perhaps with more embelHshment can say. 

Go birds of spring ! Let winter have his fee ! 
Let a bleak palenesse chalk the doore, 35 
So all within be livelier then before. 



80 LIFE 



Date: 

Not found in W. See also 1. 10 and 11. 

Metre : 

Used also in Lent, III, 171. 

Subject: 

The same as that of Vertue, VI, 95. Perhaps 
like the previous poem, a lament that his beautiful 
work in poetry has been so incomplete. 

Notes: 

1. Po5ie= nosegay, as in The Thanksgiving, IV, 83, 

1. 14, but with a double meaning. 
7. Hand and ^a/f= employment and love. 
12. Sweetening the sourness of death by the suggestions 

of the next stanza. 
15. Where the Apothecary uselh either for loosing, Ru- 
barb, or for binding, Bolearmena, the Parson useth 
damask or white Roses for the (me, and plantaine, 
shepherd's purse, knot-grasse for the other, and that 
with better successe : The Country Parson, XXIII. 
So The Rose, IV, 187, 1. 18, and Providence, V, 
87, 1. 78. 



XI. DEATH 81 



LIFE 

I MADE a posie while the day ran by. 
Here will I smell my remnant out, and tie 

My life within this band. 
But time did becken to the flowers, and they 
By noon most cunningly did steal away 5 

And wither'd in my hand. 

My hand was next to them, and then my heart, 
I took, without more thinking, in good part 

Time's gentle admonition; 
Who did so sweetly death's sad taste convey, 10 
Making my minde to smell my fatall day. 

Yet sugring the suspicion. 

Farewell deare flowers ! Sweetly your time ye spent, 
Fit, while ye liv'd, for smell or ornament, 

And after death for cures. 15 

I follow straight without complaints or grief, 
Since if my sent be good, I care not if 

It be as short as yours. 



82 GRIEF 



Introductory: 

Compare with the first half of this poem the last 
part of The Country Parson, XXXIII. 
Date: 

Not found in W. 
Metre : 

Used also in A Wreath, IV, 115, The Answer, 
IV, 147, and Love Unknown, V, 179. 
Subject: 

Distress so great should have had greater means of 
expression. Cf. Grieve Not, VI, 17, 1. 31-36. 
Notes: 

1, 2. Jeremiah ix, 1; Lamentations ii, 18. 
3. Herbert includes in grief bodily as well as mental 
suffering. Writing to Ferrar four months before his 
death, he speaks of himself as in the midst of my 
griefes. 
5. Cf. Church-Rents and Schismes, V, 107, 1. 29. 
10. The lesse world — man — is contrasted with the 

greater world. So Man, IV, 19, 1. 47. 
15. Let my eyes do the running. 
19. Accordingly this line is left without measure, tune 
and time. For other cases see A True Hymne, V 
27, 1. 20. 



XI. DEATH 83 



GRIEF 

O WHO will give me tears ? Come all ye springs, 

Dwell in my head and eyes. Come clouds, and 
rain. 
My grief hath need of all the watry things 

That nature hath produced. Let ev'ry vein 
Suck up a river to supply mine eyes, 5 

My weary weeping eyes, too drie for me 
Unlesse they get new conduits, new supplies 

To bear them out, and with my state agree. 
What are two shallow foords, two little spouts 

Of a lesse world ? The greater is but small, 10 
A narrow cupboard for my griefs and doubts, 

Which want provision in the midst of all. 
Verses, ye are too fine a thing, too wise 

For my rough sorrows. Cease, be dumbe and 
mute. 
Give up your feet and running to mine eyes, 15 

And keep your measures for some lover's lute, 
Whose grief allows him musick and a ryme. 
For mine excludes both measure, tune, and time. 
Alas, my God! 



84 HOME 



Introductory : 

The place of rest. 
Date: 

Not found in W. Probably written during the last 
Lenten Season (1. 61 and 73) of his life. 
Metre : 

Used also in Church-Musick, III, 199; Content, 
IV, 149; DiviNiTiE, V, 97; but without refrain. 
Subject: 

A cry for union: Thou with me here, or I with thee 
there! The first five stanzas expand the first line of 
the refrain; the remainder, the second. 
Notes : 

2. Stay =deleiy to come. 

5. The only double refrain employed by Herbert. 
14. Isaiah Ixiii, 5. 

20. Cf. The Starre, IV, 163, 1. 31. 
22. Cf. MisERiE, rV, 47, 1. 8. Perhaps an allusion to • 
Adam and Eve (as in the Prayer Before Ser- 
mon), and also to the apple as the sign of earthly 
love. 



XI. DEATH 85 



HOME 

Come Lord, my head doth burn, my heart is sick. 

While thou dost ever, ever stay. 
Thy long deferrings wound me to the quick. 
My spirit gaspeth night and day. 

O show thy self to me, 5 

Or take me up to thee! 

How canst thou stay, considering the pace 

The bloud did make which thou didst 
waste ? 
When I behold it trickling down thy face, 

I never saw thing make such haste. 10 
O show thy, &c. 

When man was lost, thy pitie lookt about 
To see what help in th' earth or skie. 

But there was none, at least no help without; 15 
The help did in thy bosome lie. 
O show thy, &c. 

There lay thy sonne. And must he leave that nest. 
That hive of sweetnesse, to remove 20 

Thraldome from those who would not at a feast 
Leave one poore apple for thy love ? 
O show thy, &c. 



86 HOME 



27. To me, so long ago baptized, wilt thou not appear ? 

31. Referring back to 1. 2 and 7. If thou abidest ab- 
sent from me, yet why should I from thee ? 

39. For Herbert's use of wink see Miserie, IV, 53, 
1. 62, and The Collar, V, 213, 1. 26. — Woman- 
kinde for him always represents temptation. 

51. Men may forget themselves in pleasure; but when 
they come to their senses, it is to thee they turn. 



XI. DEATH 87 

He did, he came. O my Redeemer deare, 25 
After all this canst thou be strange ? 

So many yeares baptiz'd, and not appeare ? 
As if thy love could fail or change ? 
O show thy, &c. 

Yet if thou stayest still, why must I stay ? 31 

My God, what is this world to me, 

This world of wo ? Hence all ye clouds, away, 
Away ! I must get up and see. 

O show thy, &c. 35 

What is this weary world, this meat and drink, 
That chains us by the teeth so fast ? 

What is this woman-kinde, which I can wink 

Into a blacknesse and distaste ? 40 

O show thy, &c. 

With one small sigh thou gav'st me th' other day 
I blasted all the joyes about me. 

And scouling on them as they pin'd away, 45 
Now come again, said I, and flout me. 
O show thy, &c. 

Nothing but drought and dearth, but bush and 
brake, 
Which way so-e're I look, I see. 50 

Some may dream merrily, but when they wake. 

They dresse themselves and come to thee. 
O show thy, &c. 



88 HOME 



55. "The harvest is the end of the world:" Matthew 
xiii, 39. In the next line leave, i. e. cease thinking 
about, is the emphatic word. 

61. 2 Corinthians v, 8; Psalm Iv, 6. 

70. They beg that the rest of me also may accompany 
them. 

76. The rhyme demands stay (1. 2), but I demand come. 
A somewhat similar break at the end of Deniall, 
IV, 93, and A True Hymne, V, 27. Nine of the 
thirteen stanzas of this poem have a rhyme in a. 



XI. DEATH 89 



We talk of harvests ; there are no such things 55 
But when we leave our com and hay. 

There is no fruitfuU yeare but that which brings 
The last and lov'd, though dreadfull day. 
O show thy, &c. 

Oh loose this frame, this knot of man untie! 

That my free soul may use her wing. 
Which now is pinioned with mortalitie, 

As an intangled, hampered thing. 

O show thy, &c. 65 

What have I left that I should stay and grone ? 

The most of me to heav'n is fled. 
My thoughts and joyes are all packt up and gone, 

And for their old acquaintance plead. 70 
O show thy, &c. 

Come dearest Lord, passe not this holy season. 
My flesh and bones and joynts do pray. 
And ev'n my verse, when by the ryme and reason 
The word is, Stayy sayes ever. Come! 76 
O show thy self to me, 
Or take me up to thee! 



90 THE GLANCE 



Date: 

Not found in W. A long period of life has passed, 

1.9. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject: 

The joy I felt when my Love first looked on me has 

been my stay in every ill. 
Notes: 

4. Probably the self-condemnation is excessive, but 
that it is not without ground is seen in such poems 
as Vanitie, IV, 153, and Frailtie, IV, 155. 

5-8. The period here mentioned is described at greater 
length in the first three stanzas of Affliction, TV, 
135. 

5. Sugred is used again in The Rose, IV, 185, 1. 2, 
and DuLNESSE, V, 209, 1. 21. 

7. Embalme^hnng balm or balsam to. Cf. Sunday, 

III, 175, 1. 5. 
18. A mirth=i}isit of 1. 5 and 13. 

20. Full-ey*d refers back to 1. 1. The word is used again 
in Vanitie, V, 133, 1. 7. 

21. The hne is so splendid that Vaughan has borrowed 
it for his Misery: 

" And with one glance, could he that gain — 
To look him out of all his pain." 



XI. DEATH 91 



THE GLANCE 

When first thy sweet and gracious eye 
Vouchsafed ev'n in the midst of youth and night 
To look upon me, who before did lie 
Weltring in sinne, 
I felt a sugred strange delight, 5 

Passing all cordials made by any art, 
Bedew, embalme, and overrunne my heart. 
And take it in. 

Since 'that time many a bitter storm 
My soul hath felt, ev'n able to destroy, 10 

Had the malicious and ill-meaning harm 
His swing and sway. 
But still thy sweet originall joy, 
Sprung from thine eye, did work within my soul. 
And surging griefs, when they grew bold, controU, 
And got the day. 16 

If thy first glance so powerfuU be, 
A mirth but open'd and seal'd up again, 
What wonders shall we feel when we shall see 

Thy full-ey'd love! 20 

When thou shalt look us out of pain,' 
And one aspect of thine spend in delight 
More then a thousand sunnes disburse in light. 
In heav'n above. 



92 THE DAWNING 



Introductory: 

Vaughan has imitated this poem in his Easter Day. 
Date: 

Not found in W. Probably written on the last Easter 

of his life, 1. 2, 8, 10. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject : • 

On Easter Day the habit of sadness must be aban- 
doned. 
Notes: 
9. Unless thou opposest, thou mayst rise with Christ 

into newness of life. 

11. Cf. Easter, III, 153, 1. 3. 

12. An opposite word-play to that of The Temper, 
IV, 109, 1. 7. 



XI. DEATH 93 



THE DAWNING 

Awake sad heart, whom sorrow ever drowns ! 

Take up thine eyes, which feed on earth. 
Unfold thy forehead gather'd into frowns. 

Thy Saviour comes, and with him mirth, 

Awake, awake! 5 

And with a thankful! heart his comforts take. 

But thou dost still lament, and pine, and crie. 

And feel his death, but not his victorie. 

Arise sad heart! If thou dost not withstand, 

Christ's resurrection thine may be, 10 

Do not by hanging down break from the hand 
Which as it riseth, raiseth thee. 
Arise, arise! 
And with his buriall-linen drie thine eyes. 

Christ left his grave-clothes that we might, when 

grief 15 

Draws tears or bloud, not want an handkerchief. 



94 VERTUE 

Introductory : 

This poem has been rewritten by Bishop Home 
and by John Wesley. The latter, omitting the 
poetic audacities of Herbert, has made out of his 
poem a popular hymn. — "Piscator. And now, 
scholar, my direction for thy fishing is ended with 
this shower, for it has done raining. And now look 
about you and see how pleasently that meadow 
looks; nay, and the earth smells so sweetly too.' 
Come, let me tell you what holy Herbert says of 
such days and showers as these, and theA we will 
thanlc God that we enjoy them : " Walton's Angler, 
Ch. V. 

Date : 

Not found in W. Calm meditations on death. 

Metre: 

Used also in Grace, IV, 107. 

Subject: 

The perpetuity of goodness; which is bright as the 
day, sweet as the rose, lovely as the spring, but 
excels them all in never fading. 

Notes : 

1. Sweet is repeated in each stanza. Sunday, III, 

175, has a similar opening. 
6. A color too bright will sometimes make the eyes 
blink. There may be an allusion to the same fact 
in Faith, IV, 31, 1. 38, and in Frailtie, IV, 155, 
1. 16. 



XI. DEATH 95 



VERTUE 

Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright. 

The bridall of the earth and skie; 
The dew shall weep thy fall to night. 
For thou must die. 

Sweet rose, whose hue angrie and brave 

Bids the rash gazer wipe his eye; 
Thy root is ever in its grave, 

And thou must die. 



96 VERTUE 



7. The Chukch-Porch, III, 47, 1. 266, and Joseph's 
Coat, VI, 61, 1. 3, are the only other passages 
where Herbert uses its. 
11. Ye=dsijs and roses. — Close is the technical name 
for a cadence or conclusion of a musical phrase. So 
Milton, On the Morning of Christ's Nativity, 1. 90: 

" The air such pleasure loth to lose, 
With thousand echoes still prolongs each heavenly close." 

13. In the first three stanzas time is shown to be de- 
structive; then suddenly the whole purpose of the 
poem appears in the last stanza, where time leaves 
virtue firm. 

14. G^i;e5= yields, bends, gives way. The New EngHsh 
Dictionary quotes a case of this usage from B. 
Googe, 1586: "The olive will give and bend, and 
so will the poplar, the willow." 

15. CoaZ= live coals, i. e. the final conflagration* 
2 Peter iii, 10. 



XI. DEATH 97 



Sweet spring, full of sweet dayes and roses, 

A box where sweets compacted lie; 10 

My musick shows ye have your closes, 
And all must die. 

Onely a sweet and vertuous soul, 

Like seasoned timber, never gives; 
But though the whole world turn to coal, 15 
Then chiefly lives. 



TIME 



Introductory: 

With this poem compare Death, IV, 59, 
Date: 

Not found in W. 
Metre : 

Unique. 
Subject: 

Length of days, parting us from God, can never be 

the Christian's desire. 
Notes: 

4. It has become dulled by use. 
10. Cf. Paradise, V, 39, 1. 11. 



XI. DEATH 99 



TIME 

Meeting with Time, slack thing, said I, 
Thy sithe is dull, whet it for shame. 
No marvell. Sir, he did replie, 

If it at length deserve some blame. 4 

But where one man would have me grinde it, 
Twentie for one too sharp do finde it. 

Perhaps some such of old did passe, 

Who above all things lov'd this life; 
To whom thy sithe a hatchet was. 

Which now is but a pruning-knife. 10 

Christ's coming hath made man thy debter. 
Since by thy cutting he grows better. 



100 TIME 



13. The same thought in Death, IV, 61, 1. 13-17. 
17, 18. This looks Kke a reminiscence of SiaxTopos 'Ap- 
y€L<f>6vTr)^: Odyssey, XXIV, 1-14. 

19. T/m<=that which, the full subject being the follow- 
ing line. 

20. Philippians i, 23. 

22. We should write lengthens. 

23. W ants =\sicks, misses. The punishment of hell is 
twofold, — banishment from God, and positive 
suffering. 

26. Herbert complains of the length of time, figuring it 
as portentously long since it lies outside eternity. 
See Revelation x, 6. But the mention of eternity 
shows Herbert to be seeking something never-end- 
ing. The last part of his desire contradicts the first 
(1. 2), and Time will parley no more. A similar 
discord is developed in Milton's lines On Time, 
written about the same date. 



XI. DEATH 101 



And in his blessing thou art blest. 

For where thou onely wert before 
An executioner at best, 15 

Thou art a gard'ner now, and more — 
An usher to convey our souls 
Beyond the utmost starres and poles. 

And this is that makes life so long. 

While it detains us from our God. 20 
Ev'n pleasures here increase the wrong, 
And length of dayes lengthen the rod. 
Who wants the place where God doth dwell, 
Partakes already half of hell. 

Of what strange length must that needs be 

Which ev'n eternitie excludes! 26 

Thus farre Time heard me patiently. 

Then chafing said, This man deludes: 
What do I hear before his doore ? 
He doth not crave lesse time, but more. 30 



102 A DIALOGUE-ANTHEME 



Date: 

Not found in W. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject: 

The impotence of death. 
Notes: 

1, 2. 1 Corinthians xv, 55. 
3. Of history, fame, as in Self-Condemnation, V, 

111, 1. 6. The same thought as in Content, IV, 

151, 1. 25. 
6. Hebrews ii, 15. 



XI. DEATH 103 



A DIALOGUE-ANTHEME 

Christian. Death 

Chr. Alas, poore Death, where is thy glorie ? 

Where is thy famous force, thy ancient sting ? 
Dea. Alas poore mortall, void of storie, 3 

Go spell and reade how I have kilVd thy King. 
Chr. Poore death ! And who was hurt thereby ? 

Thy curse being laid on him, makes thee accurst. 
Dea. Let losers talk! Yet thou shalt die ; 

These arms shall crush thee. Chr. Spare not, do 
thy worst. 

I shall be one day better then before; 

Thou so much worse that thou shalt be no 
more. 10 



Fuggleston Church, the chief parish church of Herbert's time. See 
Vol. I, p. 40. 



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XII 
ADDITIONAL AND DOUBTFUL POEMS 



PREFACE 

BESIDES the poems composing The Temple, 
Herbert wrote other verse. That there was a 
considerable body of this, and that it was of a secu- 
lar sort, has often been asserted. But the assertion 
rests on no evidence, and in my third Essay I have 
shown that it is inherently improbable. There are, 
however, a few additional poems which evidence of 
varying degrees of worth connects with Herbert's 
name, and these I gather into a final Group. 

For some of them the evidence is very slight. As 
is shown in the notes, it is improbable that Herbert 
ever saw the lines to the Queen of Bohemia, or 
those to Lord Dan vers and Sir John Danvers. 
Some of the Psalms here printed he may have 
written; but if so, they were justly rejected as 
unworthy to stand beside his beautiful rendering 
of The Twenty-Third Psalm. The Paradox 
has his name written upon it by an unknown 
copjdst, and Nahum Tate thought The Convert 
his. But none of these can be traced directly to 
his hand. 

The case is different with The Holy Commu- 
nion, Love, Trinitie-Sunday, Even-Song, The 
Knell, and Perseverance. These appear in the 
Williams Manuscript, intermingled with its other 



108 PREFACE TO 

poems. That manuscript, containing nearly half of 
the poems subsequently published in The Tem- 
ple, certainly originated in Herbert's study. Its 
general handwriting is that of a copyist; but its 
many corrections and its large body of Latin poems 
are in Herbert's hand. We must therefore accept 
these poems as his, or else suppose that, though 
composed by some one else, he had them copied as 
favorites into a book of his own verse. But their 
inferiority of style is quite as grave an objection to 
this supposition as to his own authorship. They 
must then be classed among his refuse work. In 
the years that intervened between the composition 
of the Williams Manuscript and his death his taste 
had ripened. Having already written other poems 
on The Holy Communion, Love, and Trinitie- 
SuNDAY, he rejected these, wrote later a substitute 
for the EvEN-SoNG, and struck out The Knell 
and Perseverance altogether. While these poems 
iti themselves are youthful and of small aesthetic 
value, they are of importance as showing that Her- 
bert did not preserve all his verse, but finally left 
for the printer only such as his critical taste ap- 
proved. 

Only one of the poems in this Group was so 
approved. The Church Militant. It is one of 
his four long and labored poems, and may have 
been designed as a kind of counterpart to The 
Church-Porch. Ferrar printed it as an appendix 
or third part of The Temple. The name. The 



ADDITIONAL POEMS 109 

Temple, does not appear in the Williams Manu- 
script, which has no title-page. The running-title 
at the head of the pages is The Church. This 
is also the running-title of the central portion of the 
book as finally printed. Perhaps, then, Herbert's 
plan — or Ferrar's — was to call the total work 
The Temple, and to let it consist of three parts : 
the main structure, conceived as The Church 
itself, with two adjuncts, — The Church-Porch, 
and The Church Militant. Yet the first two 
divisions are related so much more closely to each 
other than is either to the third that The Church 
Militant may probably better be regarded as an 
altogether detached piece. Between The Church- 
Porch and The Church the lines of Superlimi- 
NARE are inserted as a connecting link, while at 
the close of The Church stands the word FINIS 
and a Gloria. There seems, therefore, to be an 
intended detachment of The Church Militant 
from the whole framework of The Temple. The 
Envoy after The Church Militant must mark 
the close of this poem, and not of the entire book. 
To preserve this detachment, I adopt the tradi- 
tional arrangement and place The Church Mili- 
tant after the other authenticated poems. But it 
might well stand before them. To make plain the 
course of Herbert's development we should place it 
just after the Sonnets to his Mother. I, at least, 
have no doubt that it is his earliest considerable 
piece. Its style is more influenced by Donne than 



110 PREFACE TO 

is that of any of his other poems except the two 
Sonnets of 1610. There is an indication, too, of 
youth in the fact that while no half-page of The 
Church Militant shows sustained ease and mas- 
tery, one comes upon single lines of exceptional 
depth and promise, e. g. : 

Doing nought 
Which doth not meet with an etemall thought. 

The sunne^ though forward be his flighty 
Listens behinde him and allows some light 
Till all depart. 

How low is hey 
If God and man be severed infinitely ! 

Setting affliction to encounter pleasure. 

In vice the copie still exceeds 
The patterny but not so in vertuous deeds. 

Bits of poetry like these, shining among lines 
which are too often declamatory, forced, and ob- 
scure, declare the age and promise of their author. 
Nor is objective evidence of an early date lacking. 
In line 242 the Thames is said to be in danger 
of pollution through minghng its stream with the 
Seine. Herbert was too good a courtier to have 
written so after 1624, when Prince Charles was be- 
trothed to Henrietta Maria, the French Princess. 
The allusion, too, to America as the land of gold 
(1. 250) would be more natural at the time when 
the Virginia Trading Company was in full activity 



ADDITIONAL POEMS 111 

and hope than in the years after its dissolution in 
1623. 

But although The Church Militant is early, 
immature, and difficult in style, in its subject and 
method of treatment it is of marked originality; for 
it is, so far as I can discover, the first sketch of gen- 
eral Church history in our language. Single periods 
of that history had been already treated, as by 
Bede in his account of the EngKsh Church. Lives 
of the Saints had been written, and studies of 
Christian Antiquity. Of controversial works, like 
Bishop Jewel's Apology, there was no lack. But 
hitherto no Englishman had attempted to survey 
the progress of the Church as it came forth from 
little Judaea and mightily overran all the lands of 
the West. This dramatic theme Herbert seized, 
treated it in bold outline, and made of his poem 
a veritable landmark in EngKsh ecclesiastical his- 
tory. In this, as in religious poetry, he is the pioneer 
of a large company. But he could not bring his ex- 
periments in this field so near perfection as he did 
in that of the religious love-lyric. There he needed 
only to explore his own soul, while for even a good 
outline of Church history a solid body of scholar- 
ship was necessary; and this at that time was inac- 
cessible. Herbert's account is accordingly, hke all 
early history, inaccurate, partisan, and often cred- 
ulous. It is an astonishing evidence of the inde- 
pendence of his mind that it was written at all, and 
in all probabiUty written before he was thirty years 



112 Preface to 

of age. That this priority of Herbert in Church his- 
tory has not been remarked shows how superficial 
has been the attention bestowed on his widely 
circulated little book. 

Original, however, as Herbert is in the choice of 
a historical subject, he is no less original in his 
treatment of it. Most historians of the Church con- 
ceive it as an ecclesiastical organization, whose con- 
struction and vicissitudes they explore, the devel- 
opment of whose power and ritual they trace, and 
whose scheme of doctrine they vindicate. The ene- 
mies of the Church are accordingly unbelievers, 
persecuting sovereigns, or nations which refuse to 
accept its sway. 

With the progress of the Church in this sense 
Herbert is in no way concerned. What interests 
him is the coming of righteousness on earth. The 
contests of the Church are not with those who 
question priestly authority. He never alludes to 
heretics, or creeds, or forms of worship; and when 
he mentions splendid outward organizations and 
the consolidation of ecclesiastical power, it is as a 
sign of danger, if not of decay. He is, in short, true 
to that conception of the Church continually an- 
nounced iii his poems, notably in Sion, the con- 
ception which gave a name to his volume, and which 
I have abundantly discussed in my second and 
third Essays. He means by the Church the loving, 
temptable, aspiring, and ill-harmonized soul of 
man. It is no external institution. All its frame 



ADDITIONAL POEMS 113 

and fabrick is within. The Church history which 
he would write is a description of the way in 
which the new mode of affectionate holiness re- 
vealed by Jesus Christ has been intermittently 
adopted and rejected by the nations of Europe. 
His Church history is accordingly, like that of Jon- 
athan Edwards afterwards, a genuine History of 
Redemption. 

It would be an error to claim for Herbert entire 
originaUty in this ethical idea of Church history. 
The greatest of the Fathers had thought of it in 
somewhat the same way. Augustine's City of God 
is a spiritual society of the righteous united by 
allegiance to a common divine Lord. It is true that, 
while Herbert is a man of piety, Augustine is also 
a statesman, with a range of vision, a complexity 
of interests, an acquaintance with men, and a phi- 
losophic grasp denied to Herbert. But all the more 
striking on this account becomes Herbert's inde- 
pendence. He knew and honored Augustine. He 
bequeathed a set of his works to his Fuggleston 
curate, Mr. Bostock. Undoubtedly his thoughts 
about The Church Militant were initiated by 
Augustine. But he did not allow himself to be 
dominated. He took from the City of God only what 
harmonized with his own individualistic genius, 
and under the name of The Church Militant 
pictured the world's growth in personal holiness. 

The poem is divided into five parts, separated 
from one another by a refrain exalting the wisdom 



114 PREFACE TO 

of God. Part I describes the migration of Religion 
from its early home in the East to its settlement in 
Egypt; Part II, the advance of Religion through 
Greece to establish its empire in the West; Part 
III, the parallel advance of Sin ; Part IV, the 
conquest of Religion by Sin at Rome ; Part V, the 
inejffective attempts through reformation to set 
Religion free from Sin, and the probability of far- 
ther struggle in future as the two move together 
through America westward. 

In my fifth Essay is related the curious refusal 
of the Vice-Chancellor to Kcense Herbert's book on 
account of fines 235 and 236 of The Church 
Militant : 

Religion stands on tip-toe in our land, 
Readie to passe to the American strand. 

This passage, as also line 247, might suggest that 
Herbert was thinking of the Puritan migration, the 
only colonization ever undertaken from England 
with religious aims. Such thoughts are natural for 
us in looking back, but not for him w^hen looking 
forward. Even if the dates allowed, we cannot sup- 
pose that he would have sympathized with com- 
panies of obscure and wilful sectaries. That was 
not his disposition. The Pilgrims, however, did not 
sail tiU 1620; the Puritans not tiU 1628. This lat- 
ter date was just about the time when the Williams 
Manuscript was probably drawn up, and in it was 
included The Church Militant. At the time 



ADDITIONAL POEMS 115 

when the poem was written the Puritan migration 
was a small affair, and had attracted httle atten- 
tion. It is the Virginia Colony to which Herbert 
refers, that aristocratic colony with which his 
friend Ferrar was connected. What he has in mind 
is made clearer by a passage of The Country 
Parson, XXXII, in which he is planning work 
for younger sons : If the young Gallant think these 
Courses dull and phlegmatick, where can he busie 
himself better than in those new Plantations and dis- 
covery es which are not only a noble but also, as they 
may be handled, a religious imployment? He sim- 
ply means that on fresh soil religion has fresh 
opportunities. No other reference to America in 
The Temple speaks of it as reUgious ground; cf. 
The Church-Porch, III, 25, 1. 100; The Pearl, 
IV, 177, 1. 7; The Sonne, V, 161, 1. 10. 

From thijs Group of Additional Poems I have 
withdrawn three as having special importance 
elsewhere. The Knes reported by Walton as in- 
scribed in the Bemerton Parsonage I have placed 
at the beginning of Group VIII. The Sonnets of 
1610 mark the rise of that Resolve which is set 
forth with early ardor, assurance, and comprehen- 
siveness in the poems of Group II. 



ADDITIONAL AND DOUBTFUL POEMS 



118 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



Introductory: 

This and The Sacrifice are Herbert's only nar- 
rative poems. But elements of narrative enter into 
the first Affliction, The Bag, Humilitie, Love 
Unknovtn, The Pilgrimage, Peace, and The 
Pulley. 

Date: 

Found in W. 

Metre: 

Used also in Our Life is Hid, IV, 79, and An 
Anagram, V, 165. 

Subject: 

A history of the Church from the earliest times to 
Herbert's own day, maintaining — as did Bishop 
Berkeley a hundred years later — that "Westward 
the tide of empire takes its way." 

Notes: 

1-4. Cf. Providence, V, 83, 1. 41-44. 

11. Psalm Ixxx, 8. 

12. The more, i. e. because so early. \ 

14. Tnmwe=refined, exquisite, cf. 1. 151. 

15. Genesis ix, 20, and The Bunch of Grapes, V, 
217, 1. 24. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 119 



THE CHURCH MILITANT 

Almightie Lord, who from thy glorious throne 
Seest and rulest all things ev'n as one, 
The smallest ant or atome knows thy power. 
Known also to each minute of an houre. 4 

Much more do Common-weals acknowledge thee 
And wrap their policies in thy decree. 
Complying with thy counsels, doing nought 
Which doth not meet with an eternall thought. 
But above all, thy Church and Spouse doth prove 
Not the decrees of power, but bands of love. 10 
Early didst thou arise to plant this vine, 
Which might the more indeare it to be thine. 
Spices come from the East; so did thy Spouse, 
Trimme as the Hght, sweet as the laden boughs 
Of Noah's shadie vine, chaste as the dove, 15 
Prepar'd and fitted to receive thy love. 
The course was westward, that the sunne might 

light 
As well our understanding as our sight. 
Where th' Ark did rest, there Abraham began 
To bring the other Ark from Canaan. 20 



120 THE CHURCH MILITANT 

19. The progress of the Church traced here I suppose 
to be as follows: Ur of Genesis xi, 31, is identified 
with Ararat of Genesis viii, 4; and the covenant 
with Noah, Genesis vi, 18, with that with Abraham, 
Genesis xvii, 19. I should think the reading would 
be to Canaan rather than from Canaan, as it is in 
W. and Genesis xii, 5. But the reference may be to 
Abraham's going into Egypt (Genesis xii, 10), out 
of which Moses subsequently led the Israelites, 
building that Ark of the Covenant (Exodus xxxvii, 1 ; 
Deuteronomy xxxi, 26) which Solomon finally 
placed in the Temple erected at Jerusalem. 

24. When the old faith was shaken, the Jews hoped to 
confirm it by suppressing the new. 

26. Ephesians ii, 14; Matthew xxvii, 51. 

37. They =iis people. 

38. The rise of monasticism in the Thebaid of Egypt. 
41. These leaders of Egyptian monasticism in the 

fourth century Herbert reckons to be the real rulers 

of the country. 
44. The river, which in ancient times produced a plague 

of frogs (Exodus viii, 3), now as a place of baptism 

produces Israelites indeed. 
47. Psalm cxxxix, 17, Prayer-Book version. Perhaps 

also suggested by the refrain of Psalm cvii, 8 ? A 

similar partition of a poem by refrains occurs in 

Love Unknovtn, V, 179. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 121 

Moses pursued this, but King Solomon 
Finish'd and fixt the old reUgion. 
When it grew loose, the Jews did hope in vain 
By nailing Christ to fasten it again; 
But to the Gentiles he bore crosse and all, 25 
Rending with earthquakes the partition-wall. 
Onely whereas the Ark in glorie shone, 
Now with the crosse, as with a staffe, alone, 
Religion, like a pilgrime, westward bent. 
Knocking at all doores ever as she went. 30 

Yet as the sunne, though forward be his flight. 
Listens behinde him and allows some Hght 
Till all depart; so went the Church her way. 
Letting, while one foot stept, the other stay 
Among the eastern nations for a time, 35 

Till both removed to the western chme. 
To Egypt first she came, where they did prove 
Wonders of anger once, but now of love. 
The ten Commandments there did flourish more 
Then the ten bitter plagues had done before. 40 
Holy Macarius and great Anthonie 
Made Pharaoh Moses, changing th' historic. 
Goshen was darknesse, Egypt full of Kghts, 
Nilus for monsters brought forth Israelites. 44 
Such power hath mightie Baptisme to produce 
For things misshapen, things of highest use. 
How deare to me, O God, thy counsels are I 
Who may with thee compare ? 



122 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



51. Pos'd=hroughi to a stand, as in The Church- 
Porch, III, 41, 1. 223. 

54. There is a play here on learning one's letters and 
submitting to Christianity. They were sent back to 
learn the alphabet, then called Chriss-Crosse from 
the figure which stood at the beginning. Samuel 
Spped (1677) has the same play in his poem On 
Christ's Cross: 

"Can we spell Chris-cross-row, and yet not read 
That Christ for us was dead?" 

57. Took horsey i. e. religion took its departure from 

Greece. 
59. Pre^a;e(^= foreordained. 

64. Yeeld= grant, allow. So Milton: "I yield it just, 
said Adam, and submit:" Par. Lost, XI, 526. 

65. To work the salvation of man, who was once allured 
to his ruin. 

67. The great heart, i. e. of the Roman warrior, 1. 63. 

71. The pastoral staff became the Papal sceptre. 

72. The Gregorian Calendar and the substitution of 
Christian hoUdays for pagan, 

73. Alexander the Great hoped to estabUsh a wide 
Grecian empire. These hopes were cut off by the 
quarrels of his successors, and were only finally 
realized when Constantine founded Constanti- 
nople. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 123 

Religion thence fled into Greece, where arts 
Gave her the highest place in all men's hearts. 50 
Learning was pos'd, Philosophie was set, 
Sophisters taken in a fisher's net. 
Plato and Aristotle were at a losse 
And wheel'd about again to spell Christ-Crosse, 
Prayers chas'd syllogismes into their den, 55 

And Ergo was transform'd into Amen, 
Though Greece took horse as soon as Egypt did. 
And Rome as both, yet Egypt faster rid. 
And spent her period and prefixed time 59 

Before the other. Greece being past her prime. 
Religion went to Rome, subduing those 
Who, that they might subdue, made all their foes. 
The Warrier his deere skarres no more resounds. 
But seems to yeeld Christ hath the greater wounds, 
Wounds willingly endur'd to work his blisse 65 
Who by an ambush lost his Paradise. 
The great heart stoops and taketh from the dust 
A sad repentance, not the spoils of lust. 
Quitting his spear, lest it should pierce again 
Him in his members who for him was slain. 70 
The Shepherd's hook grew to a scepter here. 
Giving new names and numbers to the yeare. 
But th' Empire dwelt in Greece, to comfort them 
Who were cut short in Alexander's stemme. 



124 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



77. Th* one and th' other = Arts and Prowesse. 

84. Harbingers; see The Forerunners, VI, 77, 1. 1. 

85. Arts might in our time and country glorify the 
Church. 

88. Religion waters the soil. In commenting on this 
passage an earlier editor, "R. S.," writes: "It is re- 
markable that Herbert should think of Germany, 
rather than Italy, in connection with rehgious art; 
but if he knew the engravings of Albert Diirer, it 
would cease to be surprising." 

93. *' The thought is here obscure and probably far- 
fetched. When Constantius Chlorus Caesar in 
Britain died at York, his son Constantine was pro- 
claimed and eventually became Emperor, and on 
his conversion gave, so to speak, a crown to the 
Church. Thus his rise in Britain, and his giving a 
crown to the Church, foreshadowed, says Herbert, 
or was a type, that hereafter Britain should give the 
Church a crown; meaning that at the Reformation 
Henry VIII would put down the usurped authority 
of the Church, and make it a national Church, and 
the State's head its supreme head : *' A. B. Grosart. 
According to one tradition Helena, the mother of 
Constantine, was of British stock. 

95. Sheet of paper. Is the Nicene Creed here intended ? 



Xn. ADDITIONAL POEMS 125 

In both of these Prowesse and Arts did tame 75 
And tune men's hearts against the Gospel came ; 
Which using, and not fearing skill in th' one, 
Or strength in th' other, di4 erect her throne. 
Many a rent and struggling th' Empire knew, 
(As dying things are wont) untill it flew 80 

At length to Germanie, still westward bending. 
And there the Churches festivall attending; 
That as before Empire and Arts made way, 
(For no lesse Harbingers would serve then they) 
So they might still, and point us out the place 
Where first the Church should raise her downcast 
face. 86 

Strength levels grounds. Art makes a garden there. 
Then showres ReHgion and makes all to bear. 
Spain in the Empire shar'd with Germanie, 
But England in the higher victorie; 90 

Giving the Church a crown to keep her state 
And not go lesse then she had done of late. 
Constantine^s British hne meant this of old, 
And did this mysterie wrap up and fold 
Within a sheet of paper, which was rent 95 

From time's great Chronicle and hither sent. 
Thus both the Church and Sunne together ran 
Unto the farthest old meridian. 
How deare to me, God, thy counsels are ! 

Who may with thee compare ? 100 



126 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



103. In contrast with the western Babylon of 1. 182. 

108. The onion was one of the most important foods 
of Egypt (Numbers xi, 5). Herbert had evidently 
heard that it was worshipped there. So had Donne, 
Anatomy of the World, 428 : " For as the wine and 
corn and onions are Gods unto them." Probably 
both derived their information from Juvenal, Satire 
XV, 9-11. Compare also Phny, Natural History, 
XIX, 6. 

110. Their onions, devoted to God, being lost to diet. 

120. We also worship that which is a mere means of life. 
Cf. Avarice, V, 113 

126. Make good=make permanent, hold. 

127. For = instead of. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 127 

Much about one and the same time and place 
Both where and when the Church began her race, 
Sinne did set out of Eastern Babylon 
And travell'd westward also. Journeying on 
He chid the Church away where e're he came, 105 
Breaking her peace and tainting her good name. 
At first he got to Egypt and did sow 
Gardens of gods, which ev'ry yeare did grow 
Fresh and fine deities. They were at great cost 
Who for a god clearely a sallet lost. 110 

Ah, what a thing is man devoid of grace. 
Adoring garlick with an humble face. 
Begging his food of that which he may eat, 
Starving the while he worshippeth his meat! 
Who makes a root his god, how low is he, 115 
If God and man be sever'd infinitely! 
What wretchednesse can give him any room 
Whose house is foul, while he adores his broom ? 
None will beleeve this now, though money be 
In us the same transplanted foolerie. 120 

Thus Sinne in Egypt sneaked for a while; 
His highest was an ox or crocodile 
And such poore game. Thence he to Greece doth 

passe ; 
And being craftier much then Goodnesse was, 
He left behinde him garrisons of sinnes 125 

To make good that which ev'ry day he winnes. 
Here Sinne took heart, and for a garden-bed 
Rich shrines and oracles he purchased. 



128 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



132. " The oracular response being in verse, Herbert says 
they hide their poison in the sweetness of verse: " 
A. B. Grosart. Cf. The Church-Porch, III, 15, 
1.5. 

134. Pull=draw; so Jordan, III, 89, 1. 12. 

137. Him= Sinne. 

138. Besides the mischief wrought by Sinne in false ora- 
cles, he created distrust in oracles of every kind, 
so that when near the Christian era the Sibyls pro- 
phesied the coming of the Messiah, they were only 
half beheved. The so-called Sibylline Oracles were 
throughout the Middle Ages and for a long time 
after thought to be authentic Greek prophecies 
and consequently a testimony of heathenism to 
Christianity. In 1512 Michelangelo painted the 
Sibyls on the ceiHng of the Sistine Chapel, side by 
side with the prophets. 

147. Disparking= expelling from the park, as in The 
Forerunners, VI, 77, 1. 3. Cf. Milton's Hymn 
on the Morning of Christ's Nativity, xix. 

149. Mohammed. 

151. Trimme; cf. 1. 14. 

152. For = on account of. 

154. Prodigies=ioo much to believe. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 129 

He grew a gallant and would needs foretell 
As well what should befall as what befell. 130 
Nay, he became a poet, and would serve 
His pills of sublimate in that conserve. 
The world came both with hands and purses full 
To this great lotterie, and all would pull. 
But all was glorious cheating, brave deceit, 135 
Where some poore truths were shuffled for a bait 
To credit him, and to discredit those 
Who after him should braver truths disclose. 
From Greece he went to Rome; and as before 
He was a God, now he's an Emperour. 140 

Nero and others lodg'd him bravely there, 
Put him in trust to rule the Romane sphere. 
Glorie was his chief instrument of old. 
Pleasure succeeded straight when that grew cold. 
Which soon was blown to such a mightie flame 145 
That though our Saviour did destroy the game, 
Disparking oracles and all their treasure. 
Setting affliction to encounter pleasure, 
Yet did a rogue with hope of camall joy 
Cheat the most subtill nations. Who so coy, 150 
So trimme, as Greece and Egypt ? Yet their hearts 
Are given over, for their curious arts, 
To such Mahometan stupidities 
As the old heathen would deem prodigies. 
How deare to me, O God, thy counsels are I 155 
Who may with thee compare ? 



130 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



159. The negative virtue of keeping clear of infidelity is 
all that the Romish Church can show of its original 
divine foundation. Matthew xvi, 18. 

169. Handsome = seductive. Herbert distrusts the 
purity of Romish priests. 

171. By the pretended oracles. 

174. Christ as prophet, priest, and king. The three 
corresponding offices of Sinne are named in 1. 177- 
179. 

176. Inspiration was now confined to the Pope's utter- 
ances at Rome. 

180. Dispensations and indulgences. 

182. Revelation xvii, 5. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 131 

Onely the West and Rome do keep them free 

From this contagious infidelitie. 

And this is all the Rock whereof they boast, 

As Rome will one day finde unto her cost. 160 

Sinne being not able to extirpate quite 

The Churches here, bravely resolved one night 

To be a Church-man too and wear a Mitre; 

The old debauched ruffian would turn writer. 

I saw him in his studie, where he sate 165 

Busie in controversies sprung of late. 

A gown and pen became him wondrous well. 

His grave aspect had more of heav'n then hell: 

Onely there was a handsome picture by, 

To which he lent a corner of his eye. 170 

As Sinne in Greece a Prophet was before, 

And in old Rome a mightie Emperour, 

So now being Priest he plainly did professe 

To make a jest of Christ's three offices; 

The rather since his scattered jugghngs were 175 

United now in one, both time and sphere. 

From Egypt he took pettie deities. 

From Greece oracular infallibilities. 

And from old Rome the libertie of pleasure 

By free dispensings of the Churches treasure. 180 

Then in memoriall of his ancient throne 

He did surname his palace, Babylon. 



132 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



184. As men of every speech were once obKged to mi- 
grate in all directions from Babel, Genesis xi, 9, so 
in reverse all nations flock to the new Babylon, 1. 
194. 

190. His victories =\h.Q victories of Sinne. 

192. When they were carried captive to Babylon. 

196. When in 1177 the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa 
submitted himself to Pope Alexander HI, popular 
legend declares that the Pope set his foot on the 
Emperor's neck. 

197, The Pope never leaves Rome. 

200. Monks in appearance, but in reaKty statesmen. 
204. He rode upon it as if it were the dullest of beasts. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 133 

Yet that he might the better gain all nations, 
And make that name good by their transmigra- 
tions 
From all these places, but at divers times, 185 
He took fine vizards to conceal his crimes. 
From Egypt Anchorisme and retirednesse, 
Learning from Greece^ from old Rome statelinesse; 
And blending these he carri'd all men's eyes, 
While Truth sat by counting his victories. 190 
Whereby he grew apace and scorn'd to use 
Such force as once did captivate the Jews, 
But did bewitch and finely work each nation 
Into a voluntarie transmigration. 
All poste to Rome, Princes submit their necks 
Either t' his publick foot or private tricks. 196 
It did not fit his gravitie to stirre. 
Nor his long journey, nor his gout and furre. 
Therefore he sent out able ministers, 
Statesmen within, without doores cloisterers, 200 
Who without spear, or sword, or other drumme 
Then what was in their tongue, did overcome; 
And having conquer'd, did so strangely rule. 
That the whole world did seem but the Pope's 

mule. 
As new and old Rome did one Empire twist, 205 
So both together are one Antichrist, 
Yet with two faces, as their Janus was. 
Being in this their old crackt looking-glasse. 
How deare to me, O God, thy counsels are I 

Who may with thee compare ? 210 



134 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



214. Made the latter throne to defray. 
216. I. e. the constant accompaniments. 

223. The better =\hR more complete. 

224. The Church in our time falls as far short of the ex- 
cellence of the early Church as modern sins exceed 
ancient. 

228. The late Reformation should make us weep, as the 
second Temple did the Jews. Ezra iii, 12. 

230. Isaiah Ix, 2. 

233, 234. Widely as religion has extended itself since 
Judaean days, so great will be its contraction here- 
after. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 135 



Thus Sinne triumphs in Western Babylon, 

Yet not as Sinne, but as ReUgion. 

Of his two thrones he made the latter best, 

And to defray his journey from the east. 

Old and new Babylon are to hell and night 215 

As is the moon and sunne to heav'n and light. 

When th' one did set, the other did take place. 

Confronting equally the law and grace. 

They are hell's land-marks, Satan's double crest. 

They are Sinne's nipples, feeding th' east and west. 

But as in vice the copie still exceeds 221 

The pattern, but not so in vertuous deeds; 

So though Sinne made his latter seat the better, 

The latter Church is to the first a debter. 

The second Temple could not reach the first. 

And the late reformation never durst 226 

Compare with ancient times and purer yeares. 

But in the Jews and us deserveth tears. 

Nay, it shall ev'ry yeare decrease and fade. 

Till such a darknesse do the world invade 230 

At Christ's last coming as his first did finde. 

Yet must there such proportions be assign'd 

To these diminishings as is between 

The spacious world and Jurie to be seen. 



136 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



235, 236. "When Mr. Ferrar sent this Book to Cam- 
bridge to be Licensed for the Press, the Vice-Chan- 
cellor would by no means allow the two so much 
noted Verses, 

Religion stands a Tip-toe in our Land, 
Ready to pass to the American Strand, 

to be printed; and Mr. Ferrar would by no means 
allow the Book to be printed and want them. But 
after some time and some arguments for and against 
their being made publick, the Vice-Chancellor said : 
/ knew Mr. Herbert well, and know that he had 
many heavenly Speculations, and was a Divine 
Poet ; hut I hope the World will not take him to he 
an inspired Prophet, and therefore I License the 
whole Book:'' Walton's Life. In 1636 a piece by 
Ferrar himself, a translation of Carbo on the In- 
struction of Children, was refused License by the 
Cambridge authorities, as Oley mentions in his 
Life of Herbert. 

246. Like fashions from Italy, sins travel; so that what 
was current in Italy this year may be expected to 
appear in France and England the next. 

255. Giving them thy grace in return for what we have 
stolen from them. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 137 



Religion stands on tip-toe in our land, 235 

Readie to passe to the American strand. 
When height of malice and prodigious lusts, 
Impudent sinning, witchcrafts, and distrusts 
(The marks of future bane) shall fill our cup 
Unto the brimme and make our measure up; 
When Sein shall swallow Tiber, and the Thames 
By letting in them both pollutes her streams. 
When Italie of us shall have her will, 243 

And all her calender of sinnes fulfill ; 
Whereby one may fortell what sinnes next yeare 
Shall both in France and England domineer; 
Then shall Religion to America flee. 
They have their times of Gospel ev'n as we. 
My God, thou dost prepare for them a way 
By carrying first their gold from them away; 250 
For gold and grace did never yet agree. 
Religion alwaieg sides with povertie. 
We think we rob them, but we think amisse; 
We are more poore, and they more rich by this. 
Thou wilt revenge their quarrell, making grace 
To pay our debts, and leave our ancient place 
To go to them, while that which now their nation 
But lends to us shall be our desolation. 



138 THE CHURCH MILITANT 



261. They =ihe Western nations. 

263-266. Cf. 1. 75-88. All know the sort of Gospel 

which imperial Spain has championed. If that 

taught by the arts proves equally base, the Church 

will be crushed. 
267. When they have gone round the world and find in 

the East once more the harbor from which they 

originally set forth. 
270. The light of day and the Hght of truth both advance 

by going west. Cf. 1. 17, 97. This identification of 

Christ's progress and that of the sun is worked over 

in The Sonne, V, 161, 
274. Encircles the globe. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 139 



Yet as the Church shall thither westward flie, 
So Sinne shall trace and dog her instantly. 260 
They have their period also and set times 
Both for their vertuous actions and their crimes. 
And where of old the Empire and the Arts 
Usher'd the Gospel ever in men's hearts, 
Spain hath done one; when Arts perform the 

other, 265 

The Church shall come, and Sinne the Church 

shall smother. 
That when they haue accompUshed the round. 
And met in th' east their first and ancient sound, 
Judgement may meet them both and search them 

round. 269 

Thus do both lights, as well in Church as Sunne, 
Light one another and together runne. 
Thus also Sinne and Darknesse follow still 
The Church and Sunne with all their power and 

skill. 
But as the Sunne still goes both west and east, 
So also did the Church by going west 275 

Still eastward go; because it drew more neare 
To time and place where judgement shall appeare. 
How deare to me, O God, thy counsels are I 
Who may with thee compare ? 



140 L*ENVOY 



Introductory: 

This is the Envoy of The Church Militant, not 
of the whole collection of poems. 

Date: 

Found in W., and early in style. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

A Prayer that the evils of the Church may cease. 

Notes : 

1. Repeated from Praise, IV, 193, 1. 1. 
9. His food=i\s power of nourishment. In the pre- 
vious line his=Sinne*s. 
14. It=a\\ the breath he possesses. 
11-16. What is behinde='whgit is still lacking. Cf. A 
True Hymne, V, 27, 1. 14, and Colossians i, 24. 
The meaning is: After being conquered by the 
cross, Sinne should reserve a store of breath for 
sighs. But Sinne's own breath will be insuflScient. 
He will need to borrow from the wind in order 
to obtain enough for endless sighing. As regards 
the effect of sighs in exhausting breath, see Afflic- 
tion, VI, 31, 1. 9. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 141 



L'ENVOY 

King of glorie. King of peace, 

With the one make warre to cease; 

With the other blesse thy sheep. 

Thee to love, in thee to sleep. 

Let not Sinne devoure thy fold, 5 

Bragging that thy bloud is cold, 

That thy death is also dead. 

While his conquests dayly spread; 

That thy flesh hath lost his food. 

And thy Crosse is common wood. 10 

Choke him, let him say no more. 

But reserve his breath in store. 

Till thy conquests and his fall 

Make his sighs to use it all. 

And then bargain with the winde 15 

To discharge what is behinde. 

Blessed he God alone, 
Thrice blessed Three in One. 



FINIS 



142 THE HOLY COMMUNION 



Introductory: 

Another poem with this title is given, III, 195. 

Date: 

This and the following five poems are found in W., 
but not in B. They are scattered throughout the 
manuscript, no two of them occurring together. In 
no one of them is there a single erasure or correc- 
tion. 

Metre: 

Unique, but closely resembles The British 
Church, V, 101. 

Subject: 

The question whether Christ enters into the com- 
munion bread is unimportant, if only he enter into 
the beKever. 

Notes: 
9. Dr. Gibson quotes from Hooker, Eccles. Pol. V, 
LXVII, 12: "What these elements are in them- 
selves it skilleth not, it is enough that to me which 
take them they are the body and blood of Christ." 
13, 18. Whether thou enterest not into the bread but 
only into me, or into both bread and me, is only a 
question of a shorter or longer road. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 143 



THE HOLY COMMUNION 

O GRATious Lord, how shall I know 
Whether in these gifts thou bee so 

As thou art everywhere ? 
Or rather so as thou alone 
Tak'st all the Lodging, leaving none 5 

For thy poore creature there. 

First I am sure, whether Bread stay, 
Or whether Bread doe fly away, 

Concerneth Bread, not mee; 
But that both thou and all thy traine 10 

Bee there, to thy truth and my gaine, 

Concerneth mee and Thee. 

And if in comming to thy foes 

Thou dost come first to them, that showes 

The hast of thy good will. 15 

Or if that thou two stations makest. 
In Bread and mee, the way thou takest 

Is more, but for mee still. 

Then of this also I am sure. 

That thou didst all those pains endure 20 

To aboKsh Sinn, not Wheat. 
Creatures are good and have their place. 
Sinn onely, which did all deface. 

Thou drivest from his seat. 



144 THE HOLY COMMUNION 



25. Impanation= God embodying himself in bread. 

33. Eyesight. 

38. "I. e. keeps that natural substance which is in the 
grass and herbs, from which all jflesh is immediately 
or intermediately derived:" A. B. Grosart. 

41. Meres = limits. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 145 



I could beleeve an Impanation 25 

At the rate of an Incarnation, 

If thou hadst dyde for Bread. 
But that which made my soule to dye. 
My flesh and fleshly villany, 

That allso made thee dead. 30 

That Flesh is there mine eyes deny. 
And what should flesh but flesh discry, 

The noblest sence of five ^ 
If glorious bodies pass the sight, 34 

Shall they be food and strength and might. 

Even there where they deceive .'^ 

Into my soule this cannot pass. 

Flesh (though exalted) keeps his grass. 

And cannot turn to soule. 
Bodyes and Minds are different spheres, 40 
Nor can they change their bounds and meres. 

But keep a constant pole. 

This gift of all gifts is the best. 
Thy flesh the least that I request. 

Thou took'st that pledge from mee. 45 
Give mee not that I had before. 
Or give mee that so I have more. 

My God, give mee all Thee. 



146 LOVE 



Introductory: 

Two other poems with this title are given, III, 83, 

IV, 197. 
Date: 

Found in W., and early in style. 
Metre : 

Unique. 
Subject: 

Similar to that of The Reprisall, IV, 89; i. e. 

however we try to find God needy and ourselves 

givers, closer knowledge always proves the contrary . 
Notes : 

8. Shrodely= shrewdly. 
20. The matter =ihis matter, i. e. love. I shall then 

have conquered thee altogether. 
24. I should have done what these three have failed to 

do. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 147 



LOVE 

Thou art too hard for me in Love. 
There is no dealing wth thee in that Art. 
That is thy Masterpeece, I see. 
When I contrive and plott to prove 
Something that may be conquest on my part, 5 
Thou still, O Lord, outstrippest mee. 

Sometimes, whenas I wash, I say, 
And shrodely as I think, Lord wash my soule, 
More spotted then my flesh can bee. 
But then there comes into my way 10 

Thy ancient baptism, which when I was foule 
And knew it not, yet cleansed mee. 

I took a time when thou didst sleep. 
Great waves of trouble combating my brest; 
I thought it brave to praise thee then. 15 
Yet then I found that thou didst creep 
Into my hart wth ioye, giving more rest 
Then flesh did lend thee back agen. 

Let mee but once the conquest have 
Vpon the matter, 'twill thy conquest prove. 20 
If Thou subdue mortalitie. 
Thou dost no more then doth the grave. 
Whereas if I orecome thee and thy Love, 

Hell, Death, and Divel come short of mee. 



148 TRINITIE-SUNDAY 



Introductory: 

Another poem with this title is given, III, 161. 

Date: 

Found in W., and early in style. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

Reality is everywhere threefold. 

Notes : 
3. Two, i. e. body and soul. Cf . Man's Medley, V, 

125. 
11-18. The first Theeje, Satan, though he had a kind of 
beHef in God (James ii, 19), did not acknowledge 
the threefold order of God, saints, and angels, or 
heaven, earth, and hell. He is consequently shut 
out from God or heaven, and confined to the last 
two. But whoever rightly confesses God has all. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 149 



TRINITIE-SUNDAY 

He that is one 

Is none. 
Two reacheth thee 
In some degree. * 

Nature and Grace 5 

With Glory may attaine thy Face. 
Steele and a flint strike fire. 
Witt and desire 
Never to thee aspire 
Except Kfe catch and hold those fast. 10 

That which beleefe 
Did not confess in the first Theefe 

His fall can tell 
From Heaven through Earth to Hell. 
Lett two of those alone 15 

To them that faU, 
Who God and Saints and Angels loose at last. 
Hee that has one 
Has all. 



150 EVEN-SONG 



Pate: 

In W. this appears in place of the Even-Song (V, 

59) of B. This fact alone might well prove W. to 

be an early draft of Herbert's verse. 
Metre: 

Unique, but differs only in rhyming system from 

The Temper, IV, 111. 
Subject: 

God the light of all his creatures. 
Notes : 
15. Darker =T[iOTQ difficult to see. 
17. This, i. e. that thou art not to be seen. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 151 

EVEN-SONG 

The Day is spent, and hath his will on mee. 

I and the Sunn have runn our races. 

I went the slower, yet more paces; 
For I decay, not hee. 

Lord, make my Losses up, and sett mee free; 
That I, who cannot now by day 6 

Look on his daring brightnes, may 

Shine then more bright then hee. 

If thou deferr this light, then shadow mee; 
Least that the Night, earth's gloomy shade, 
FouUng her nest, my earth invade, 11 

As if shades knew not thee. 

But thou art Ught and darknes both togeather. 
If that bee dark we cannot see. 
The sunn is darker than a tree, 15 

And thou more dark then either. 

Yet thou art not so dark since I know this 
But that my darknes may touch thine, 
And hope, that may teach it to shine. 

Since Light thy Darknes is. 20 

O lett my soule, whose keyes I must deliver 
Into the hands of senceles Dreams 
Which know not thee, suck in thy beams 

And wake with thee for ever. 



152 THE KNELL 



Introductory: 

The Knell would seem to be used in the sense of 

a call to church rather than to a funeral. 
Date : 

Found in W. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject: 

Prayer for deliverance from worldly allurement. 

The poem may refer to Herbert's frequent subject, 

vacillation between the church and the world. 
Notes : 

2. The perplexed soule cannot be the dead. 

3. PFi5/iZ2/= wistfully. 

14. The reverse of Affliction, VI, 29, 1. 10. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 153 



THE KNELL 

The Bell doth toUe. 
Lord, help thy servant whose perplexed soule 

Doth wishly look 

On either hand. 
And sometimes offers, sometimes makes a stand. 

Struggling on th' hook. 6 

Now is the season. 
Now the great combat of our flesh and reason. 

O help, my God! 
' See, they breake in, 10 

Disbanded humours, sorrows, troops of Sinn, 

Each with his rodd. 

Lord make thy blood 
Convert and colour all the other flood 

And streams of grief, 15 

That they may bee 
Julips and Cordials when wee call on thee 

For some relief. 



154 PERSEVERANCE 



Date : 

Found in W. 
Metre: 

Unique. 
Subject: 

What warrant have I that my highest moods shall 
be permanent ? Only thy steadfastness. Cf . The 
Temper, IV, 111. 
Notes : 
3. Move = intend to speak, as in The Method, V, 

197, 1. 6. 
6. My iudgement=ilie condemnation of me. 1 Corin- 
thians ix, 27. 
8. Remains concealed with thee. 
16. Psalm xxviii, 1. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 155 



PERSEVERANCE 

My God the poore expressions of my Love, 
Which warme these lines and serve them up to 
thee 
Are so as for the present I did move, 
Or rather as thou movedst mee. 

But what shall issue, — whether these my words 5 

Shall help another but my iudgment bee, 
As a burst fouHng-peece doth save the birds 
But kill the man, — is seal'd with thee. 

For who can tell though thou hast dyde to winn 
And wedd my soule in glorious paradise, 10 
Whether my many crymes and use of sinn 
May yet forbid the banns and bliss ? 

Onely my soule hangs on thy promisses, 

Wth face and hands clinging unto thy brest; 
Clinging and crying, crying without cease, 15 

Thou art my rock, thou art my rest. 



156 THE CONVERT 



Title : 

"This piece is from Miscellanea Sacra, or Poems 
on Divine and Moral Subjects, collected by N. 
Tate, second edition, 1698, p. 51, where it is headed 
The Convert, An Ode written by Mr. George Her- 
bert. It is to be regretted that Tate does not inform 
us whence he derived this Ode. But as he was well 
circumstanced to procure Mss. and as others of 
eminent names first published by him have been 
authenticated, there is every probability that he 
had an autograph of this poem:*' A. B. Grosart. 

Metre : 

Unique. 

Subject: 

My eyes, voice, and heart, which have hitherto been 
given over to women, shall henceforth be dedicated 
to God. 

Notes : 

7. In Vanitie, IV, 153, 1. 3, an experience is hinted 
similar to that lamented here. Cf. also Frailtie, 
TV, 155, 1. 3, and Home, VI, 87, 1. 39. 
18. The Temple. This word is suspicious. An imitator, 
remembering the title of Herbert's book, would be 
likely to use it; but it is rarely used by Herbert 
himself. See note on Sion, VI, 24. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 157 



THE CONVERT 

If ever tears did flow from eyes, 
If ever voice was hoarse with cries, 
If ever heart was sore with sighs, — 
Let now my eyes, my voice, my heart. 
Strive each to play their part. 5 

My eyes, from whence these tears did spring. 
Where treach'rous Syrens us'd to sing, 
Shall flow no more, untill they bring 

A deluge on my sensual flame. 

And wash away my shame. 10 

My voice, that oft with foolish lays. 
With vows and rants and senseless praise, 
Frail Beauty's charms to heav'n did raise. 
Henceforth shall only pierce the skies 
In penitential cryes. 15 

My heart, that gave fond thoughts their food, 

Till now averse to all that's good. 

The Temple where an idol stood. 

Henceforth in sacred flames shall bum, 
And be that idol's urn. 20 



158 ON AN ANCHOR-SEAL 



Introductory: 

"A little before his death Doctor Donne caused 
many Seals to be made, and in them to be ingraven 
the figure of Christ crucified on an Anchor (the 
emblem of hope) and of which Doctor Donne 
would often say, Crux mihi Anchora. These Seals 
he gave or sent to most of those friends on which 
he put a value; and at Mr. Herbert's death these 
Verses were found wrapt up with that Seal which 
was by the Doctor given to him:" Walton's Life. 

Date: 

Donne died in 1631. L. 2 refers to him as already 
dead. 

Metre: 

Used also in An Anagram, V, 165, and The 
Church Militant, VI, 119. 

Subject: 

The Cross our stay. 

Notes: 

2. Rev. J. J. Daniell in his Life of Herbert, 222, says 
that this seal is now in the possession of Rev. W. 
Ayerst, of Cambridge. 
4. Hebrews vi, 19. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 159 



ON AN ANCHOR-SEAL 

When my dear Friend could write no more, 
He gave this Seal, and so gave ore. 

When winds and waves rise highest, I am sure 
This Anchor keeps my faith; that, me secure. 



160 TO JOHN DONNE, D. D. 



Introductory: , 

Herbert thanked Donne for his seal in some Latin 
verses, which he also translated into English. 

Date: 

These lines may have been written before the 
death of Donne in 1631. ^ Yet not long before. Ac- 
cording to the preceding poem, and according to 
Walton, too, Donne died soon after he sent the 
seal. 

Notes : 

14-17. Death sought to break up my friend's com- 
muuications with me. This seal renders them 
forever secure. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 161 

TO JOHN DONNE, D. D. 

ON HIS SEAL OF CHRIST AND AN ANCHOR 

Although the Cross could not Christ here detain, 
Though naird unto't, but He ascends again, 
Nor yet thy eloquence here keep Him still, 
But only while thou speakst, this Anchor will. 
Nor canst thou be content unless thou to 5 

This certain Anchor add a Seal; and so 
The water and the earth both unto thee 
Do owe the symbole of their certainty. 

When Love, being weary, made an end 

Of kind expressions to his friend, 10 

He writ; when's hand could write no more. 

He gave the Seal and so left o're. 

How sweet a friend was he who, being griev'd 

His letters were broke rudely up, believ'd 14 

'T was more secure in great Love's commonweal. 

Where nothing should be broke, to add a Seal! 

Let the world reel. We and all ours stand sure. 

This holy cable's of all storms secure. 



162 A PARADOX 



Introductory: 

From Rawlinson Manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, signed G. Herbert. First printed 
by Pickering. Reprinted with corrections by Dr. 
Grosart, who calls attention to the poem of the 
same name and subject in the Synagogue of Chris- 
topher Harvey as evidence that Harvey supposed 
this poem to be by Herbert. With it compare 
Herbert's letter to his mother, II, 206. 

Metre: 

Unique. 

Subject: 

That the sick are in better case than the whole. 

Notes: 

6. The emphatic word is yourselves. 
12. " Here used for one who is in the mean or middle 
state between the two; neither in perfect health nor 
under the full sway of sickness; one who was, in 
fact, in the state in which Herbert then was — fail- 
ing:" A. B. Grosart. * 
14. " A curious ellipse of with. Can which be an error 

for where ? " A. B. Grosart. 
17. People sometimes weep for joy. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 163 



A PARADOX 

THAT THE SICK ARE IN BETTER CASE THAN THE 
WHOLE 

You who admire yourselves because 

You neither grone nor weepe, 
And think it contrary to nature's laws 

To want one ounce of sleepe, 

Your strong beleife 5 

Acquits yourselves and gives the sick all greife. 

Your state to ours is contrary, 
That makes you thinke us poore; 

So Black-Moores thinke us foule, and wee 
Are quit with them, and more. 10 

Nothing can see 

And judg of things but mediocrity. 

The sick are in themselves a state 
Which health hath naught to doe. 

How know you that our tears p'ceed from woe. 
And not from better fate ? 16 

Since that Mirth hath 

Her waters alsoe and desyred bath. 



164 A PARADOX 



20. On the expenditure of sighing, see note on Afflic- 
tion, VI, 31, 1. 10. 

31. With this stanza compare the fourth of The Size, 
V, 193. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 165 

How know you that the sighs wee send 

From want of breath p'ceede, 20 

Not from excesse ? And therefore we do spend 
That which we do not neede; 
So trembhng may 

As well show inward warblings as decay. 

Cease then to judge calamityes 25 

By outward forme and shew; 
But view yourselves and inward turn your eyes, 

Then you shall fully know 
That your estate 
Is, of the two, the farre more desperate. 30 

You allwayes feare to feele those smarts 

Which we but sometimes prove; 
Each little comfort much affects our hearts, 

None but gross joyes you move. 

Why then confesse 35 

Your feares in number more, your joyes are lesse ? 

Then for yourselves not us embrace 

Plaints to bad fortune due. 
For though you visitt us and plaint our case, 

Wee doubt much whether you 40 

Come to our bed 
To comfort us, or to be comforted. 



166 TRANSLATIONS OF PSALMS 



Introductory: 

The following Psalms were collected and edited by 
Dr. Grosart and accompanied by this note: 
" These Psalms are taken from the following now 
extremely rare book : 

PSALMS AND HYMNS 

In solemn Musick 

Of Foure Parts, 

Or the common tunes to the Psalms in Metre: 

Used in Parish-Churches. 

Also six Hymns for one Voice to the Organ. 

For God is King of all the earth; 
sing ye praises with understanding. 
Psalm xlvii, 7. 

By John Playford. 

[Picture of K. David playing, surrounded 
by a square margin containing the music 
of Gloria in excelsis, Deo Cantate, &c.] 

London: Printed by W. Godbid for J. Playford at his shop in 
the Inner-Temple, 1671. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 167 



PSALM II 

Why are the heathen swell'd with rage, 
The people vain exploits devise ? 

The kings and potentates of earth 
Combined in one great faction rise ? 

And taking couneels 'gainst the Lord 
And 'gainst His Christ, presume to say, 

' Let us in sunder break their bonds, 
And from us cast their cords away.' 

But He that sits in heaven shall laugh. 
The Lord Himself shall them deride; 

Then shall He speak to them in wrath, 
And in sore anger vex their pride. 

*But I am God, and seated King 

On Sion, His most holy hill; 
I will declare the Lord's decree. 

Nor can I hide His sacred will.' 



168 TRANSLATIONS OF PSALMS 



The book is dedicated to William Sancroft, D. D., 
Dean of St. Paul's. In the Preface occur these ex- 
planations: 'To those which are Bishop King's 
there is H. K.; those of Mr. [Miles] Smith [yet Kv- 
ing], M. S.; those with G. H. are supposed to be 
Mr. George Herbert's.'" 

A Gloria and these five have the initials G. H. 
attached. Dr. Grosart prints two more which he 
thinks, on slender evidence, are by Herbert. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 169 



He said to Me, * Thou art My Son, 
This day have I begotten Thee; 

Make Thy request, and I will grant, 
The heathen shall Thy portion be. 

Thou shalt possess earth's farthest bounds. 
And there an awful sceptre sway; 

Whose pow'r shall dash and break them all. 
Like vessels made of brittle clay.* 

Now therefore, O ye kings, be wise; 

Be learned, ye that judge the earth; 
Serve our great God in fear; rejoice, 

And tremble in your highest mirth. 

O kiss the Son, lest He be wroth, 
And straight ye perish from the way: 

When once His anger burns, thrice blest 
Are all that make the Son their stay. 



170 PSALM III 



PSALM III 



How are my foes increased, Lord! 

many are they that rise 
Against me, saying, for my soul 

no help in God there is. 
But Thou, O Lord, ar't still the shield 

of my deUverance; 
Thou art my glory. Lord, and He 

that doth my head advance. 

I cry'd unto the Lord, He heard 

me from His holy hill; 
I laid me down and slept, I wak't; 

for God sustained me still. 
Aided by Him, I will not fear 

ten thousand enemies. 
Nor all the people round about 

that can against me rise. 

Arise, O Lord, and rescue me; 

save me, my God, from thrall; 
'T is Thou upon the cheek-bone smit'st 

mine adversaries all. 
And Thou hast broke th' ungodly's teeth: 

salvation unto Thee 
Belongs, O Lord; Thy blessing shall 

upon Thy people be. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 171 



PSALM IV 

Lord, hear me when I call on Thee, 
Lord of my righteousness; 

O Thou that hast enlarged me 
when I was in distress. 

Have mercy on me, Lord, and hear 

the prayer that I frame; 
How long will ye, vain men, convert 

my glory into shame ? 

How long will ye seek after Kes, 

and vanity approve ? 
But know the Lord Himself doth chuse 

the righteous man to love. 

The Lord will hearken unto me 
when I his grace implore; 

O learn to stand in awe of Him, 
and sin not any more. 



172 PSALM IV 



Within your chamber try your hearts; 

offer to God on high 
The sacrifice of righteousness, 

and on His grace rely. 

Many there are that say, *0 who 
will show us good ? ' But, Lord, 

Thy countenance's cheering light 
do Thou to us afford. 

For that, O Lord, with perfect joy 

shall more replenish me 
Than worldlings joy'd with all their store 

of corn and wine can be. 

Therefore will I lie down in peace 

and take my restful sleep; 
For Thy protection. Lord, alone 

shall me in safety keep. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 173 



PSALM VI 

Rebuke me not in wrath, O Lord, 
nor in Thine anger chasten me; 

O pity me; for I, O Lord, 
am nothing but infirmitie. 

O heal me, for my bones are vex'd, 
my soul is troubled very sore; 

But, Lord, how long so much perplex'd 
shall I in vain Thy grace implore ? 

Return, O God, and rescue me, 
my soul for Thy great mercy save; 

For who in death remember Thee ? 
or who shall praise Thee in the grave ? 

With groaning I am wearied, 

all night I make my couch to swim, 

And water with salt tears my bed; 
my sight with sorrow waxeth dim. 



174 PSALM VI 



My beauty wears and doth decay, 

because of all mine enemies; 
But now from me depart away, 

all ye that work iniquities. 

For God Himself hath heard my cry; 

the Lord vouchsafes to weigh my tears ; 
Yea, He my prayer from on high 

and humble supplication hears. 

And now my foes the Lord will blame 

that e'rst so sorely vexed me, 
And put them all to utter shame, 

and to confusion suddainly. 

Glory, honour, power, and praise 

to the most glorious Trinity; 
As at the first beginning was, 

is now, and to eternity. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 175 



PSALM VII 

Save me, my Lord, my God, because 

I put my trust in Thee; 
From all that persecute my Ufe, 

O Lord, deliver me. 

Lest like a Uon swollen with rage 

he do devour my soul; 
And piece-meal rent it, while there's none 

his malice to controul. 

If I have done this thing, O Lord, 

if I so guilty be; 
If I have ill rewarded him 

that was at peace with me; 

Yea, have not oft dehver'd him 

that was my causeless foe, 
Then let mine enemie prevail 

unto mine overthrow. 



176 PSALM VII 



Let him pursue and take my soul; 

yea, let him to the clay 
Tread down my life, and in the dust 

my slaughtered honour lay. 

Arise in wrath, O Lord, advance 
against my foes' disdain; 

Wake and confirm that judgment now 
which Thou did'st foreordain. 

So shall the people round about 
resort to give Thee praise; 

For their sakes, Lord, return on high, 
and high Thy glory raise. 

The Lord shall judge the people all; 

O God, consider me 
According to my righteousness 

and mine integritie. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 177 



The wicked's malice, Lord, confound, 

but just me ever guide; 
Thou art that righteous God by whom 

the hearts and rains are try'd. 

God is my shield. Who doth preserve 
those that in heart are right; 

He judgeth Ifoth the good and those 
that do His justice slight. 

Unless the wicked turn again, 

the Lord will whet His sword; 

His bow is bent. His quiver is 

with shafts of vengeance stor'd. 

The fatal instruments of death 

in that prepared lie; 
His arrows are ordain'd 'gainst him 

that persecuteth me. 



178 PSALM Vn 



Behold the wicked travelleth 

with his iniquitie; 
Exploits of mischief he conceives, 

but shall bring forth a lye. 

The wicked digged, and a pit 
for others' ruine wrought; 

But in the pit which he hath made 
shall he himseK be caught. 

To his own head his wickedness 
shall be returned home; 

And on his own accursed pate^ 
his cruelty shall come. 

But I, for all His righteousness, 
the Lord will magnifie; 

And ever praise the glorious Name 
of Him that is on high. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 179 



GLORIA TO PSALM XXIII 

To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
one consubstantial Three, 

All highest praise, all humblest thanks, 
now and for ever be. 



180 ON SIR JOHN DANVERS 



Introductory : 

" By the same [George Herbert] Orator of [the] Uni- 
versity at Cambridge : pinned on the curtaine of the 
picture of the old Sir John Danvers, who was both 
a handsome and a good man. Sir John Danvers, 
senior, married Elizabeth Nevill, fourth daughter 
and co-heiress of John, Lord Latimer. She re-mar- 
, ried Sir Edmund Carey. George Herbert of Bemer- 
ton, having been in the first year of his age in 1594, 
when Sir John Danvers, senior, died, could only 
have known his character by report: " Aubrey and 
Jackson's Wiltshire, p. 224. There is nothing in the 
style of these lines to connect them with Herbert. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 181 

ON SIR JOHN DANVERS 

Passe not by; 
Search, and you may 
Find a treasure 
Worth your stay. 
What makes a Danvers 
Would you find ? 
In a fayre body 
A fayre mind. 

Sir John Danvers' earthly part 
Here is copied out by art; 
But his heavenly and divine 
In his progenie doth shine. 
Had he only brought them forth, 
Know that much had been his worth. 
Ther's no monument to a sonne: 
Read him there, and I have done. 



182 ON LORD DANVERS 



Introductory: 

From the monument in the church of Dauntsey. 

Date: 

Dr. Grosart writes: "There was but one Lord 
Danvers, viz. : Henry Danvers, second son of Sir 
John Danvers, Kt. by Lady Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Nevil, Lord Latimer. He was born at Daunt- 
sey, Wilts, 28th. of June, 1573; created Baron Dan- 
vers in 1603, and Earl of Danby, 7th. of February, 
1625-6. He died 20th. of January 1643-4, and was 
buried at Dauntsey. The death of Lord Danvers in 
1643-4 makes it clear that the Hues inscribed on his 
monument, and to which contemporaneously was 
added the name of G. Herbert, must have been 
composed by him for some other and appKed to 
Lord Danvers, he having predeceased the Earl in 
1632-3." A simpler explanation of these opposing 
dates is that the lines were erroneously attributed to 
Herbert, of whose style they show little trace. 

Notes: 

5. Weares=weaTs away. 

7. "The tears which are shed for him by mourners dis- 
solve thy frame:" A. B. Grosart. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 183 



ON LORD DANVERS 

Sacred marble, safely keepe 

His dust, who under thee must sleepe 

Untill the graves againe restore 

Theire dead, and time shal be no more. 4 

Meanewhile, if hee (which all thinges weares) 

Doe mine thee, or if the tears 

Are shed for him dissolve thy frame. 

Thou art requited; for his fame. 

His vertues, and his worth shal bee 

Another monument for thee. 10 



184 TO THE QUEENE OF BOHEMIA 



Introductory : 

The Princess Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James I, 
was born in Scotland, August 19, 1596. On Febru- 
ary 14, 1612-13, she married Frederic V, Duke of 
Bavaria and Elector Palatine of the Rhine, who 
in 1619 was elected King of Bohemia. Defeated 
and driven from his domains by the Emperor Fer- 
dinand, he died at Mainz, in 1632. EHzabeth died 
in London in 1661-2, and was buried in West- 
minster Abbey. She was the mother of Prince 
Rupert. Poems in honor of her were written by 
many poets of the day, among them Dr. Donne. 
That by Sir H. Wotton is probably the best known. 
Quarles was at one time in her service. In 1619 
Sir Francis Nethersole resigned the Oratorship at 
Cambridge in order to become her Secretary, and 
Herbert was appointed Orator in his place. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 185 



TO THE QUEENE OF BOHEMIA 

Bright soule, of whome if any countrey knowne 
Worthy had bin, thou hadst not lost thine owne; 
No Earth can bee thy Jointure, For the sunne 
And starres alone unto the pitch doe runne 
And pace of thy swift vertues; onely they 5 

Are thy dominion. Those that rule in clay 
Stick fast therein, but thy transcendent soule 
Doth for two clods of earth ten spheres controule. 
And though starres shott from heaven loose their 
Hght, 9 

Yet thy brave beames, excluded from their right, 
Maintaine their Lustre still, and shining cleare 
Turn watrish Holland to a chrystalline sphere. 
Mee thinkes, in that Dutch optick I doe see 
Thy curious vertues much more visibly. 
There is thy best Throne, for afflictions are 15 
A foile to sett of[f] worth and make it rare. 
Through that black tiffany thy vertues shine 
Fairer and richer. Now wee know what's thine. 
And what is fortune's. Thou hast singled out 
Sorrowes and griefs, to fight with them about 20 
At their owne weapons, without pomp or state 
To second thee against their cunning hate. 



186 TO THE QUEENE OF BOHEMIA 



Date: 

Dr. Grosart has printed this, for the first time, from 
the Harleian Manuscript 3910, pp. 121-2, where it 
appears with the letters G. H. at its head. That it 
was written by Herbert there is no other evidence. 
It is not unhke Herbert's early style; but the allu- 
sions in the poem itself are suspicious. The Queen 
is represented as living in Holland after the over- 
throw of her cause. In Holland she did live at in- 
tervals during the last ten years of her husband's 
life ; but her residence there was more continuous 
after his death. The compliment, too, of 1. 34, that 
an undivided Majestye is still to be seen in her face, 
suggests that her husband is dead. If so, Herbert 
could not have written the poem, as he and Frederic 
died in the same year. 
Metre: 

The same as that of The Church Militant, VI, 
119. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 187 



O what a poore thing 't is to be a Queene, 
When scepters, state, Attendants are the screene 
Betwixt us and the people! When-as glory 25 
Lyes round about us to helpe out the story; 
When all things pull and hale, that they may bring 
A slow behaviour to the style of king; 
When sense is made by Comments, but that face 
Whose native beauty needs not dresse or lace 30 
To serve it forth, and being stript of all 
Is self-sufficient to bee the thrall 
Of thousand harts, that face doth figure thee 
And show thy undivided Majestye; 
Which misery cannot untwist, but rather 35 

Addes to the union, as lights doe gather 
Splendour from darknes. So close sits the crowne 
About thy temples that the furious frowne 
Of opposition cannot place thee where 39 

Thou shalt not be a Queene, and conquer there. 
Yet hast thou more dominions: God doth give 
Children for kingdomes to thee; they shall live 
To conquer new ones, and shall share the frame 
Of th' universe, like as the windes, and name 
The world anew. The sunne shall never rise 45 
But it shall spy some of their victories. 
Their hands shall clipp the Eagle's winges and 
chase 



188 TO THE QUEENE OF BOHEMIA 



Notes : 
17. Tiffany— gsiuze. 
20. About, probably a bout. 
47. The Imperial Eagles. 
53. Do not fear to let your sons engage in war. 
56. Thence=Bohemi8i. 
62. Holland. 
66. Meet theire tast=^t for their taste. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 189 



Those ravening Harpyes, which peck at thy face, 

At once to Hell without a baiting while 

At Purgatory, their inchanted He, 50 

And Paris garden. Then let their perfume 

And Spanish sents, wisely layd up, presume 

To deale with brimstone, that untamed stench 

Whose fier, hke their malice, nought can quench. 

But joyes are stor'd for thee; thou shalt returne 

Laden with comforts thence, where now to morne 

Is thy chief government, to manage woe. 

To curbe some Rebell teares which faine would 

flow. 
Making a Head and spring against thy Reason. 
This is thy empire yet, till better season 60 

Call thee from out of that surrounded Land; 
That habitable sea and brinish strand. 
Thy teares not needing. For that hand Divine, 
Which mingles water with thy Rhenish wine. 
Will power full joyes to thee; but dregs to those 
And meet theire tast who are thy bitter foes. 66 



190 L'ENVOY 



Notes : 

2. Psalm i, 3. 
10. Mame=t}ie ocean. 



XII. ADDITIONAL POEMS 191 



L'ENVOY 

Shine on, Majestick soule, abide 

Like David's tree, planted beside 

The Flemmish rivers; in the end 

Thy fruite shall with their drops contend; 

Great God will surely dry those teares, 5 

Which now that moist land to thee beares. 

Then shall thy Glory, fresh as flowers 

In water kept, maugre the powers 

Of Divell, Jesuitt, and Spaine, 

From Holland sail into the Maine: 10 

Thence wheeling on, it compass shall 

This oure great Sublunary Ball, 

And with that Ring thy fame shall wedd 

Eternity into one Bedd. 






Salisbury Cathedral, to which Herbert went twice each iveek for 
music. Seep. 172. Its spire, //)//■ feet high, is seen from the 
Bectory. 



TEXTUAL VARIATIONS OF THE 
MANUSCRIPTS 



TEXTUAL VARIATIONS 

Justice (p. 13) : 

1. For thy B. reads my. 
Affliction (p. 33) : 

12. For frick B. reads 'pink. 
The Glimpse (p. 49) : 

5. For for B. reads to. 
Home (p. 85) : 

On p. 570 of the Rawlinson Manuscript 213, in the 
Bodleian Library, stanzas i, xi, and xii of thisi 
poem are given, the twelfth stanza alone having the 
refrain. 
The Dawning (p. 93) : 

9. For dost B. reads doe. 
Vertue (p. 95) : 

7. For its B. reads his. 
The Church Militant (p. 119) : 
11. For this line W. reads : 

Thau didst rise early for to plant this vine. 

16. For this line W. reads : 

AU emblems which thy Darling doth improve. 

20. For from W. reads to. 

32. For allows W. reads gives them. 

33. For depart W. reads be gone. 



196 TEXTUAL VARIATIONS 

49. For this line W. reads : 

Thence into Greece she fled, where curious Arts. 

52. For fisher*s net W. reads fisher-nett. 
59. For And spent W. reads Spending. 
60-62. For these Hnes W. reads : 

Before the other two were in their prime : 
From Greece to Rome she went, svbduing those 
Who had subdued all the world for foes. 

64. For hath W. reads had. 

76. For tune W. reads cleanse. 

78. For did erect her throne W. reads took possession. 
104. For Journeying W. reads Coasting. 
123. For poore W. reads small. 
133. For both W. reads in. 
137. For the second to W. reads so. 
148. For affliction W. reads afflictions. 
151. For trimme W. reads spruse. 
157. For Onely the West W. reads Europe alone, but this 

is then erased. 
160. For this single line W. reads the following three : 

Traditions are accounts without our host. 
They who rely on them must reckon twice. 
When written Truths shall censure marCs devise. 

168. For had more of W. reads was liker. 

180. For free dispensings W. reads dispensations. 

190. B. omits his. ^ 

193. For finely work each W. reads both kings and many a. 

194. For into W. reads unto. 
198. For and W. reads or. 



TEXTUAL VARIATIONS 197 

201-204. For these lines W. reads: 

Who brought his doctrines and his deeds from Rome : 
But when they were unto the Sorbon come. 
The waight was such they left the doctrines there. 
Shipping the vices onely for our sphere. 

229. For yeare W. reads day. 

232. For proportions W. reads proportion. 

248. For times W. reads time. 

256. For the second our B. and W. read her. 

258. For But lends W. reads Lendeth. 

267. For the W. reads their. 

271-273. For these lines W. reads: 

Like comick lovers ever one way runn. 
Thus also sinne and darknes constantly 
Follow the Church and sunn where ere they fly. 

L'Envoy (p. 141): 

2. For warre W. reads warrs. 

4. B. omits in. 
11. For say W. reads speak. 
17, 18. W. omits these lines. 



INDEX TO POEMS 



INDEX OF TITLES 



Aaron, V, 11. 

Affliction, IV, 43, 135, VI, 29, 

31, 33. 
Agonie, V, 153. 
To All Angels and Saints, III, 

163. 
The Altar, III, 121. 
Anagram, V, 165. 
On an Anchor-Seal, VI, 159. 
The Answer, IV, 147. 
Antiphon, III, 107, V, 63. 
Artillerie, IV, 157. 
Assurance, V, 225. 
Avarice, V, 113. 

The Bag, V, 157. 

The Banquet, V, 53. 

H. Baptisme, HI, 191, 193. 

Bitter-Sweet, VI, 11. 

The British Church, V, 101. 

The Bunch of Grapes, V, 215. 

Businesse, V, 139. 

The Call, V, 9. 
Charms and Knots, IV, 7. 
Christmas, III, 167. 
Church-Floore, V, 167. 
Church-Lock and Key, IV, 97. 
The Church Militant, VI, 

119, 
Church-Monuments, III, 201. 
Church-Musick, III, 199. 
The Church-Porch, III, 15. 
Church-Rents and Schismes, 

V, 105. 
Clasping of Hands, V, 37. 
The Collar, V, 211. 
H. Communion, III, 195, VI. 

143. 



Complaining, VI, 27. 
Confession, VI, 19. 
Conscience, V, 229. 
Constancie, V, 119. 
Content, IV, 149. 
The Convert, VI, 157. 
The Crosse, V, 231. 

Lord Danvers, VI, 183. 

Sir John Danvers, VI, 181. 

The Dawning, VI, 93. 

Death, IV, 59. 

Decay, V, 115. 

Dedication, III, ix. 

Deniall, IV, 93. 

Dialogue, IV, 165. 

A Dialogue-Antheme, VI, 103. 

The Discharge, V, 187. 

Discipline, VI, 57. 

Divinitie, V, 97. 

To John Donne, D. D., VI, 

161. 
Dooms-Day, IV, 63. 
Dotage, V, 137. 
Dulnesse, V, 207. 

Easter, III, 153. 
Easter Wings, IV, 131. 
The Elixer, III, 99. 
Employment, HI, 103, IV, 143. 
L'Envoy, VI, 141, 191. 
Even-Song, V, 59, VI, 151. 

Faith, IV, 29. 

The Familie, V, 185. 

The Flower, VI, 65. 

The Foil, V, 123. 

The Forerunners, VI, 77. 

Frailtie, IV, 155. 



202 



INDEX 



Giddinesse, V, 129. 
The Glance, VI, 91. 
The Glimpse, VI, 49. 
Gloria to Psalm XXIII, VI, 

179. 
Good Friday, III, 149. 
Grace, IV, 107. 
Gratefulnesse, V, 41. 
Grief, VI, 83. 
Grieve not the Holy Spirit, &c., 

VI, 15. 

Heaven, IV, 69. 
The Holdfast, V, 17. 
Home, VI, 85. 
Hope, V, 203. 
Hmnilitie, IV, 35. 
A True Hymne. V, 27. 

Inscirotion, V, 75. 
The Invitation, V, 49. 

Jesu, VI, 63. 
The Jews, V, 109. 
Jordan, m, 87,91. 
Joseph's Coat, VI, 61. 
Judgement, IV, 67. 
Justice, V, 117, VI, 13. 

The Knell, VI, 153. 

Lent, III, 171. 

Life, yi, 81. 

Longing, VI, 41. 

Love, III, 83, IV, 197, VI, 147. 

Love-Joy, V, 163. 

Love Unknown, V, 179. 

Man, IV, 11. 

Man's Medley, V, 125. 

Marie Magdalene, V, 151. 

Mattens, IV, 81. 

The Method, V, 197. 

Miserie, IV, 47. 

Mortification, IV, 55. 

Nature, IV, 99. 



Obedience, IV, 181. 
The Odour, V, 23. 
An Offering, IV, 189. 
Our Life is Hid, &c., IV. 
79. 

Paradise, V, 39. 

A Paradox, VI, 163. 

A Parodie, VI, 53. 

Peace, IV, 173. 

The Pearl, IV, 177. 

Perseverance, Vt, 155. 

The Pilgrimage, V, 237. 

The Posie, V, 29. 

Praise, III, 95, IV, 193. V, 45. 

Prayer, III, 181, 183. 

The Priesthood, IV, 169. 

Providence, V, 79. 

The 23 Psalme, V, 19. 

Psalms, VI, 167, 170, 171, 

173, 175. 
The Pulley, V, 149. 

Queene of Bohemia, VI, 185. 
The Quidditie, III, 97. 
The Quip, V, 33. 

Redemption, IV, 33. 
Repentance, IV, 101. 
The Reprisall, IV, 89. 
The Rose, IV, 185. 

The Sacrifice, III, 123. 

Saints, vide Angels. 

Schismes, vide Church-Rents. 

H. Scriptures, III, 187. 

The Search, V, 219. 

Self -Condemnation, V, 111. 

Sepulchre, V, 155. 

Sighs and Grones, VI, 37. 

Sinne, IV, 25, 27. 

The Sinner, IV, 91. 

Sinnes Round, V, 143. 

Sion, VI, 25. 

The Size. V, 193. 

The Sonne, V, 161. 

Sonnets to his Mother, III, 79, 



INDEX 



203 



The Starre, IV, 161.- 
The Storm, VI, 23. 
Submission, V, 205. 
Sunday, III, 175. 
Superliminare, III, 119. 

The Temper, IV, 109, 111. 
The Thanksgiving, IV, 83. 
Time VI 99. 

Trinitie-Sunday, III, 161, VI, 
149. , 



Ungratefulnesse, IV, 39. 
Unkindnesse, IV, 105. 

Vanitie, IV, 153, V, 133. 
Vertue, VI, 95. 

The Water-Course, V, 147 
Whitsunday, III, 157. 
The Windows, V, 15. 
The World, IV, 21. 
A Wreath, IV, 115. 



TITLES ARRANGED IN THE TRADI- 
TIONAL ORDER 



The Dedication, III, ix. 

The Church-Porch, III, 15. 

Superliminare, III, 119. 

The Altar, III, 121. 

The Sacrifice, III, 123. 

The Thanksgiving, IV, 83. 

The Reprisall, IV, 89. 

The Agonie, V, 153. 

The Sinner, IV, 91. 

Good Friday, HI, 149. 

Redemption, IV, 33. 

Sepulchre, V, 155. 

Easter, III, 153. 

Easter Wings, IV, 131. 

H. Baptisme, HE, 191. 

Nature, IV, 99. 

Sinne, IV, 25. 

Affliction, IV, 43. 

Repentance, IV, 101. 

Faith, IV, 29. 

Prayer, III, 181. 

H. Communion, HI, 195. 

Antiphon, IH, 107. 

Love, III, 83. 

The Temper, IV, 109. 

The Temper, IV, 111. 

Jordan, III, 87. 

Employment, III, 103. 

H. Scriptures, III, 187. 

Whitsunday, III, 157. 

Grace, IV, 107. 

Praise, III, 95. 

Affliction, IV. 135. 

Mattens, IV, 81. 

Sinne, IV, 27. 

Even-Song, V, 59. 

Church-Monuments, III, 201. 

Church-Musick, III, 199. 



Church-Lock and Key, IV, 97. 
The Church-Floore, V, 167. 
The Windows, V, 15. 
Trinitie-Sunday, III, 161. 
Content, IV, 149. 
The Quidditie, III, 97. 
Humihtie, IV, 35. 
Frailtie, IV, 155. 
Constancie, V, 119. 
Affliction, VI, 29. 
The Starre, IV, 161. 
Sunday, III, 175. 
Avarice, V, 113. 
Anagram, V, 165. 
To All Angels and Saints, III, 

163. 
Emplovment, IV, 143. 
Denial!, IV, 93. 
Christmas, III, 167. 
Ungratefulnesse, IV, 39. 
Sighs and Grones, VI, 37. 
The World, IV, 21. 
Our Life is Hid, &c., IV, 79. 
Vanitie, IV, 153. 
Lent, m, 171. 
Vertue, VI, 95. 
The Pearl, IV, 177. 
Affliction, VI, 31. 
Man, IV, 11. 
Antiphon, V, 63. 
Unkmdnesse, IV, 105. 
Life, VI, 81. 
Submission, V, 205. 
Justice, VI, 13. 
Charms and Knots, IV, 7. 
Affliction, VI, 33. 
Mortification, IV, 55. 
Decay, V, 115. 



206 



INDEX 



Miserie, IV, 47. 

Jordan, III, 91. 

Prayer, III, 183. 

Obedience, IV, 181. 

Conscience, V, 229. 

Sion, VI, 25. 

Home, VI, 85. 

The British Church, V, 101. 

The Quip, V, 33. 

Vanitie, V, 133. 

The Dawning, VI, 93. 

Jesu, VI, 63. 

Businesse, V, 139. 

Dialogue, IV, 165. 

Dulnesse, V, 207. 

Love-Joy, V, 163. 

Providence, V, 79. 

Hope, V, 203. 

Sinnes Round, V, 143. 

Time, VI, 99. 

Gratefulnesse, V, 41. 

Peace, IV, 173. 

Confession, VI, 19. 

Giddinesse, V, 129. 

The Bundb of Grapes, V, 

215. 
Love Unknown, V, 179. 
Man's Medley, V, 125. 
The Storm, VI, 23. 
Paradise, V, 39. 
The Method, V, 197. 
Divinitie, V, 97. 
Grieve Not the Holy Spirit, 

&c.,VI, 15. 
The FamiUe, V, 185. 
The Size, V, 193. 
Artillerie, IV, 157. 
Church-Rents and Schismes, 

V, 105. 
Justice, V, 117. 
The Pilgrimage, V, 237. 
The Holdfast, V, 17. 
Complaining, VI, 27. 
The Discharge, V, 187. 
Praise, IV, 193. 
An Offering, IV, 189. 
Longing, VI, 41. 



The Bag, V, 157. 

The Jews, V, 109. 

The Collar, V, 211. 

The Glimpse, VI, 49. 

Assurance, V, 225. 

The Call. V, 9. 

Clasping of Hands, V, 37. 

Praise, V, 45. 

Joseph's Coat, VI, 61. 

The PuUey, V, 149. 

The Priesthood, IV, 169. 

The Search, V, 219. 

Grief, VI, 83. 

The Crosse, V, 231. 

The Flower, VI, 65. 

Dotage, V, 137. 

The Sonne, V, 161. 

A True Hymne, V, 27. 

The Answer, IV, 147. 

A Dialogue - Antheme, VI, 

103. 
The Water-Course, V, 147. 
Self -Condemnation, V, 111. 
Bitter-Sweet, VI, 11. 
The Glance, VI, 91. 
The 23 Psahne, V, 19. 
Marie Magdalene, V, 151. 
Aaron, V, 11. 
The Odour, V, 23. 
The Foil, V, 123. 
The Forerunners, VI, 77. 
The Rose, IV, 185. 
Discipline, VI, 57. 
The Invitation, V, 49. 
The Banquet, V, 53. 
The Posie, V, 29. 
A Parodie, VI, 53. 
The EUxer, IH, 99. 
A Wreath, IV. 115. 
Death, IV, 59. 
Dooms-Day, IV, 63. 
Judgement, IV, 67. 
Heaven, IV, 69. 
Love, IV. 197. 
The Church Militant, VI, 

119. 
L'Envoy, VI, 141. 



INDEX OF FIRST LINES 

A broken Altar, Lord, thy servant reares, III, 121. 

Ah my deare angrie Lord, VI, 11. 

Alas, poore Death, where is thy glorie ? VI, 103. 

All after pleasures as I rid one day, III, 167. 

Almightie Judge, how shall poore wretches brook, IV, 67. 

Almightie Lord, who from thy glorious throne, VI, 119. 

Although the Cross could not Christ here detain, VI, 161. 

And art thou grieved, sweet and sacred Dove, VI, 15. 

As he that sees a dark and shadie grove, III, 191. 

As I one evening sat before my cell, IV, 157. 

As men, for fear the starres should sleep and nod, V, 97. 

As on a window late I cast my eye, V, 163. 

Awake sad heart, whom sorrow ever drowns! VI, 93. 

Away despair ! My gracious Lord doth heare, V, 157. 

A wreathed garland of deserved praise, IV, 115. 

Blest be the God of love, V, 59. 

Blest Order, which in power dost so excell, IV, 169. 

Brave rose, (alas !) where art thou ? In the chair, V, 105. 

Bright soule, of whome if any countrey knowne, VI, 185. 

Bright spark, shot from a brighter place, IV, 161. 

Broken m pieces aU asunder, VI, 33. 

Busie enquiring heart, what wouldst thou know ? V, 187. 

But that Thou art my wisdome. Lord, V, 205. 

Canst be idle ? Canst thou play, V, 139. 

Come away, IV, 63. 

Come, bring thy gift. If blessings were as slow, IV, 189. 

Come Lord, my head doth bum, my heart is sick, VI, 85. 

Come, my,Way, my Truth, my Life, V, 9. 

Come ye luther all whose taste, V, 49. 

Content thee, greedie heart, V, 193. 

Deare Friend, sit down, the tale is long and sad, V, 179. 
Death, thou wast once an uncouth hideous thing, IV, 59. 
Do not beguile my heart, VI, 27. 

False glozing pleasures, casks of happinesse, V, 137. 
Full of rebelUon, I would die, IV, 99. 



208 INDEX 

Having been tenant long to a rich Lord, IV, 33. 

Heark, how the birds do sing, V, 125. 

He that is one, VI, 149. 

He that is weary, let him sit, III, 103. 

Holinesse on the head, V, 11. 

How are my foes increased. Lord! VI, 170. ' 

How fresh, O Lord, how sweet and clean, VI, 65. 

How should I praise thee. Lord ! How should my rymes, IV, 

111. 
How soon doth man decay ! IV, 55. 
How sweetly doth My Master sound ! My Master, V, 23. 
How well her name an army doth present, V, 165. 

I blesse thee. Lord, because I grow, V, 39. 

I cannot ope mine eyes, IV, 81. 

I cannot skill of these thy wayes, VI, 13. 

If as a flowre doth spread and die, IV, 143. 

If as the windes and waters here below, VI, 23. 

If ever tears did flow from eyes, VI, 157. 

If thou chance for to find, V, 75. 

If we could see below, V, 123. 

I gave to Hope a watch of mine; but he, V, 203. 

I have consider'd it, and finde, IV, 89. 

I joy, deare Mother, when I view, V, 101. 

I know it is my sinne which locks thine eares, IV, 97. 

I know the wayes of learning, both the head, IV, 177. 

I made a posie while the day ran by, VI, 81. 

Immortall Heat, O let thy greater flame. III, 85. 

Immortall Love, authour of this great frame, HI, 83. 

I saw the Vertues sitting hand in hand, IV, 35. 

I struck the board, and cry'd. No more, V, 211. 

It cannot be. Where is that mightie joy, IV, 109. 

[ threatned to observe the strict decree, V, 17. 

I travell'd on, seeing the hill where lay, V, 237. 

Jesu is in my heart, his sacred name, VI, 63. 

Joy, I did lock thee up, but some bad man, V, 215. 

Kill me not eVry day, VI, 29. 

King of Glorie, King of Peace, IV, 193. 

King of glorie. King of peace, VI, 141. 

Let all the world in eVry comer sing, V, 63. 

Let forrain nations of their language boast, V, 161. 

Let wits contest, V, 29. 

Listen, sweet Dove, unto my song. III, 157. 

Lord hear me when I call on Thee, VI, 171. 



INDEX 209 

Lord, how can man preach thy etemall word? V, 15. 
Lord, how couldst thou so much appease, IV, 29. 
Lord, how I am all ague when I seek, IV, 91. 
Lord, I confesse my sinne is great, IV, 101. 
Lord, in my silence how do I despise, IV, 155. , 
Lord, I will mean and speak thy praise, V, 45. 
Lord, let the Angels praise thy name, IV, 47. 
Lord, make me coy and tender to offend, IV, 105. 
Lord, my first fruits present themselves to thee, III, ix. 
Lord, thou art mine, and I am thine, V, 37. 
Lord, who createdst man in wealth and store, IV, 131. 
Lord, who hast form'd me out of mud. III, 161. 
Lord, with what bountie and rare clemencie, IV, 39. 
Lord, with what care hast thou begirt us round! IV, 27. 
Lord, \\ith what glorie wast thou serv'd of old, VI, 25. 
Love bade me welcome; yet my soul drew back, IV, 197. 
Love built a stately house; where Fortune came, IV, 21. 

Mark you the floore ? That square and speckled stone, V, 167. 

Meeting with Time, slack thing, said I, VI, 99. 

Money, thou bane of blisse and sourse of wo, V, 113. 

My comforts drop and melt away like snow, IV, 147. 

My God, a verse is not a crown, III, 97. 

My God, if writings may, IV, 181. 

My God, I heard this day, IV, 11. 

My God, I read this day, IV, 43. 

My God the poore expressions of my Love, VI, 155. 

My God, where is that antient heat towards thee. III, 79. 

My heart did heave, and there came forth, O God! VI, 31. 

My joy, my life, my crown! V, 27. 

My stock lies dead, and no increase, IV, 107. 

My words and thoughts do both expresse this notion, IV, 79. 

Not in rich furniture or fine array, HI, 195. 

O blessed bodie! Whither art thou thrown? V, 155. 

O day most calm, most bright. III, 175. 

O do not use me, VI, 37. 

O dreadfull Justice, what a fright and terrour, V, 117. 

Of what an easie quick accesse. III, 183. 

O gratious Lord, how shall I know, VI, 143. 

Oh all ye who passe by, whose eyes and minde. III, 123. 

Oh Book! Infinite sweetnesse! Let my heart, III, 187. 

Oh glorious spirits, who after all your bands, III, 163. 

Oh King of grief ! A title strange, yet true, IV, 83. 

Oh that I knew how all thy lights combine. III, 189. 

Oh, what a thing is man ! How farre from power, V, 129. 



210 INDEX 

O my chief good, III, 149. 

O sacred Providence, who from end to end, V, 79. 

O spitefull bitter thought! V, 225. 

O that I could a sinne once see! IV, 25. 

O what a cunning guest, VI, 19. 

O who will give me tears ? Come all ye springs, VI, 83. 

O who will show me those delights on high, IV, 69. 

Passe not by, VI, 181. 

Peace mutt' ring thoughts, and do not grudge to keep, IV, 149. 

Peace pratler, do not lowre ! V, 229. 

Philosophers have measur'd mountains, V, 153. 

Poore heart, lament, V, 197. 

Poore nation, whose sweet sap and juice, V, 109. 

Poore silly soul, whose hope and head hes low, IV, 153. 

Praised be the God of love, III, 107. 

Prayer the Churches banquet. Angel's age. III, 181. 

Presse me not to take more pleasure, IV, 185. 

Rebuke me not in wrath, O Lord, VI, 173. 

Rise, heart, thy Lord is risen. Sing his praise, III, 153. 

Sacred marble, safely keepe, VI, 183. 

Save me, my Lord, my God, because, VI, 175. 

Shine on, Majestick soule, abide, VI, 191. 

Since, Lord, to thee. III, 193. 

Sorrie I am, my God, sorrie I am, V, 143. 

Soul's joy, when thou art gone, VI, 53. 

Sure, Lord, there is enough in thee to dry. III, 81. 

Sweet day, so cool, so cahn, so bright, VI, 95. 

Sweetest of sweets, I thank you! When displeasure, III, 199. 

Sweetest Saviour, if my soul, IV, 165. 

Sweet Peace, where dost thou dwell? I humbly crave, IV, 173. 

Sweet were the dayes when thou didst lodge with Ijot, V, 115. 

Teach me, my God and King, III, 99. 

The Bell doth tolle, VI, 153. 

The Day is spent, and hath his will on mee, VI, 151. 

The fleet Astronomer can bore, V, 133. 

The God of love my shepherd is, V, 19. 

The harbingers are come. See, see their mark! VI, 77. 

The merrie world did on a day, V, 33. 

Thou art too hard for me in Love, VI, 147. 

Thou that hast giVn so much to me, V, 41. 

Thou who condemnest Jewish hate, V, 111. 

Thou who dost dwell and linger here below, V, 147. 

Thou, whom the former precepts have. III, 119. 



INDEX 211 

Thou whose sweet youth and early hopes inhance. III, 15. 

Throw away thy rod, VI, 57. 

To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, VI, 179. 

To write a verse or two is all the praise, HE, 95. 

Welcome, deare feast of Lent ! Who loves not thee. III, 171. 

Welcome sweet and sacred cheer, V, 53. 

What doth this noise of thoughts within my heart, V, 185. 

What is this strange and imcouth thing! V, 231. 

When blessed Marie wip'd her Saviour's feet, V, 151. 

When first my lines of heaVnly joyes made mention, HI, 91. 

When first thou didst entice to thee my heart, IV, 135. 

When first thy sweet and gracious eye, VI, 91. 

When God at first made man, V, 149. 

When my dear Friend could write no more, VI, 159. 

When my devotions could not pierce, IV, 93. 

While that my soul repairs to her devotion, HE, 201. 

Whither away delight? VI, 49. 

Whither, O, whither art thou fled, V, 219. 

Who is the honest man, V, 119. 

Who reade a chapter when they rise, IV, 7. 

Who says that fictions onely and false hair, HI, 87. 

Why are the heathen swell'd with rage, VI, 167. 

Why do I languish thus, drooping and dull, V, 207. 

With sick and famisht eyes, VI, 41. 

Wounded I sing, tormented I indite, VI, 61. 

You who admire yourselves because, VI, 163, 



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